preservation audiovisual film motion picture training education masters degree digital copyright conservation
Digital Preservatoin, Fall 2007, H72.1807
MOVING IMAGE ARCHIVING & PRESERVATION PROGRAM
DIGITAL PRESERVATION, H72.1807
Version 1: 9/16/07
Fall 2007 — Mondays, 11:00 am – 3:00 pm (please note classes are not necessarily sequential and one class is on Wednesday); 665 Broadway, Rm 643
Instructor: Mona Jimenez: firstname.lastname@example.org 212-992-8458: Rm 613, 665 Broadway
This class will address the use of digital files as both production and preservation media, and will investigate current theories and practices for the conservation and preservation of both digitized and born digital materials. Characteristics of image, audio and video files will be explored, as well as the computer environments within which they are produced and stored. Students will gain practical skills with identification and risk assessment for works as a whole, their component parts, and associated software and metadata. Initiatives by broadcasters, the Library of Congress and other national archives, digital libraries and others will be explored as examples of the architecture and attributes of digital repositories. Emphasis will be placed on how moving image archivists may interact with these repositories as part of their preservation practice. Students will also develop an increased understanding of metadata and of rights management for digital materials.
A blackboard site will be available for this course. Students will be expected to check in on the site several times a week for updates. Students are encouraged to pass along resources for the benefit of the class; forward them to Mona for posting.
Attendance at all classes is expected as the classes are doubled up into 4-hour blocks. Please speak to me about all absences; more than one unexcused absence will substantially affect your grade. Each class will include a 20 break.
Please note that all written work must utilize proper citations, including proper web citations. Works that do not include complete citations will be returned for revision and considered late. Also, please read the Plagiarism Advisory at the end of the syllabus.
MIAP Digital Archive:
In addition to submitting assignments in print form, all course papers/projects will be submitted to me in electronic form. The materials will be made part of the MIAP digital archive in a private space for faculty use, and on the MIAP web site. Further information will be provided.
It is not necessary to purchase books for the course – Most are on the web; articles will be put on reserve in the Bobst Library as needed. Please note: Some readings may have been assigned in other classes in the Moving Image Archiving and Preservation Program; however, some repetition is necessary to create a context. It is expected that you will review these readings before class time to re-familiarize themselves with the concepts.
Access to Computer Labs:
Please see http://www.nyu.edu/its/labs/ for locations and descriptions of NYU's computer labs as needed to work on your computer–related assignments.
Turn completely off during class as they may create problems with classroom audio.
Assignments and grading:
Each student will do two assignments as described below. Grades will be based on a combination of class preparedness and participation (40%); and two assignments (30% each).
Creation of computer timeline. Students will work together to create a partial timeline of computer environments from the introduction of desktop computers to the present. The focus will be on the hardware, storage media, operating software, production software, file formats, interfaces, etc., that will help an archivist theorize about the environment in which a particular work was produced. This information will be useful to the archivist in determining the look and feel of a work, and will assist her/him in recovering and/or conserving older files and works. Each student will be given an aspect of the timeline for study. The final form of the timeline will be determined through the group–s work. Due dates: Draft on October 22; final on November 5.
Students will work in several small groups to analyze digital video productions in order to understand the production process, what elements are appropriate to be archived and preserved from such a project (i.e., original elements, project files, metadata, edit decision lists, final rendered projects, etc.) and what steps are necessary to submit them to a digital repository. These productions will typically start out on tape, are edited in either Final Cut Pro or the Avid, and exist in final form partly or wholly as digital files. A report will be generated describing the production history, the state of the elements, what should be saved, what the risks are to the materials, recommendations for care and storage, and steps to be taken to deposit the works. The submission information package (SIP) for the Preserving Public Television Project will be utilized. Due: November 21.
Class 1: Monday, September 17
Due this class
Read the following:
- Edmundson, Ray. "Preservation: exploring nature and concept" in Audiovisual Archiving: Philosophy and Principles. Paris: UNESCO. 2004. Retrieved 8/31/04 at http://portal.unesco.org/ci/ev.php?URL_ID=15592&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201&reload=1086101143
- Besser, Howard. "Digital Longevity" in Handbook for Digital Projects: A Management Tool for Preservation and Access. (Ed.) Maxine Sitts. Andover, MA: National Document Conservation Center. Accessed 8/31/04 at http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/%7Ehoward/Papers/sfs-longevity.html
- Waters, Donald and John Garrett. Preserving Digital Information, Report on the Task Force of Archiving of Digital Information. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Services. 1996. Accessed 8/14/07 at http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub63.html
- The video Giant Brains, available at the Avery Fisher Center.
As follow-up to today's class:
- For a timeline that includes threats and preservation efforts see: Cornell University Library Research Department. "Setting the Stage: Introduction" in Digital Preservation Management: Implementing Short-term Strategies for Long-term Problems. Retrieved 9/10/07 at http://www.library.cornell.edu/iris/tutorial/dpm/timeline/index.html
- For a review of threats to the longevity of digital materials see: Cornell University Library Research Department. "Obsolescence and Physical Threats" in Digital Preservation Management: Implementing Short-term Strategies for Long-term Problems. Retrieved 9/10/07 at http://www.library.cornell.edu/iris/tutorial/dpm/oldmedia/index.html
- For a summary of the preservation strategies we discussed see: Cornell University Library Research Department. "Digital Preservation Strategies" in Digital Preservation Management: Implementing Short-term Strategies for Long-term Problems. Retrieved 9/10/07 at http://www.library.cornell.edu/iris/tutorial/dpm/terminology/strategies.html
Resources for further study of computer history:
- Charles Babbage Institute Center for the History of Information Technology. "Other Resources". Retrieved at http://www.cbi.umn.edu/resources/index.html
- Computer History Museum. Home page. Accessed 8/28/04 at http://www.computerhistory.org/
- Introductions, syllabus review – what will be covered in this class and what will be covered in Handling New Media (20 min.)
- Discussion of forms of digital works, the related forms of production and the issues raised. We will be looking the migration of analog tape to data; digital tape to data, and data to data. Review of basic audiovisual archival principles that we will apply to digital media, and review of problems with digital longevity, according to frameworks proposed by a 1994 Task Force on Digital Information, and by Howard Besser and others. (60 min.)
- Overview of major projects and standards being developed by various communities, and the various strategies being discussed and tested. These will be explored in detail throughout this course and in Handling New Media. (45 min.)
- Begin of the review of computer technical history, structures, major developments and terminology, beginning in the 1940s. (75 min.)
- Discussion of Assignment #1: (20 min.)
Class 2: Monday, September 24
Due this class
Read the following:
- Arms, Caroline R. and Carl Fleischhauer. "Overview" and "Formats, Evaluation and Relationships" in the Introduction of Sustainability of Digital Formats: Planning for Library for Congress Collections. Retrieved 9/12/07 at http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/index.shtml
- Cornell University Library Research Department. "Basic Terminology" in Moving Theory into Practice: Digital Imaging Tutorial. Retrieved 9/4/04 at http://www.library.cornell.edu/preservation/tutorial/intro/intro-01.html
- Technical Advisory Services for Images. "File Formats and Compression". Last update 2005. Retrieved 9/15/07 at http://www.tasi.ac.uk/advice/creating/fformat.html
- Arms, Caroline R. and Carl Fleischhauer. "Sustainability Factors" and "Content Categories: Still Image" in Sustainability of Digital Formats: Planning for Library for Congress Collections. Retrieved 9/12/07 at http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/index.shtml
- Complete our discussion of computer history with review of concepts of essence, encoding, containers, and wrappers, as we move into image, audio and video essence and files. (45 min.)
- Overview of graphic files: still file types and formats, vector vs. bitmap; typical metadata. (75 min.)
- Melitte Buchman, Digital Conversion Specialist in the NYU Digital Library will speak about computer color, color spaces, color management, changes in computer displays, the possible impact of migration, and strategies and standards, especially as they apply to maintaining digital images over time. (1 hour 15 min.)
- Check-in on Assignment #1: (25 min.)
Class 3: Monday, October 22
Due this class:
- Draft version of Assignment #1
- Arms, Caroline R. and Carl Fleischhauer. "Content Categories: Sound" in Sustainability of Digital Formats: Planning for Library for Congress Collections. Retrieved 9/12/07 at http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/index.shtml
- Wilson, Andrew; Richard Wright; Malcolm Polfreman; Sheila Anderson; Simon Tanner; and Emma Beer. "Moving Images and Sound Metadata Review and Requirements" in Moving Images and Sound Archiving Study. Arts and Humanities Data Service. 2006. Retrieved 9/10/07 at http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/programme_preservation/project_movingimagesound.aspx
- Additional readings and references TBA
- Review of principles of analog to digital conversion for audio; technical standards; specifications for preservation masters; metadata captured in recording, digital audio metadata standards, initiatives/resources for audio preservation. (1 hour 15 min.)
- Lab work: Digital capture of analog audio; characteristics of digital audio, audio preservation file formats; issues in digitization, migration and exchange. (1 hour 45 min.)
- Discussion of progress on and findings of Assignment #1 (40 min.)
Class 4: Monday, November 5
Due this class:
- Final version of Assignment #1
- Arms, Caroline R. and Carl Fleischhauer. "Content Categories: Moving Images" in Sustainability of Digital Formats: Planning for Library for Congress Collections. Retrieved 9/12/07 at http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/index.shtml
- Watch: Apple, Inc. "Final Cut Studio 2. Tutorials" on the web site of Apple, Inc. 2007. Retrieved 10/10/07 at http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/tutorials/
- Additional readings and references TBA
- Review of principles of analog to digital conversion for video; technical standards including color space/displays for video; proposals for files as preservation masters; metadata captured in recording, digital video metadata standards, initiatives/resources for digital video/video preservation. (1 hour 15 min.)
- Lab work: Digital capture of analog video; characteristics of digital video; proposed preservation file formats; issues in digitization, migration and exchange. (1 hour 45 min.)
- Discussion of approach to Assignment #2 (40 min.)
Class 5: Monday, November 12
Due this class:
Read the following:
- Cornell University Library Research Department. "Foundations: Introduction" in Digital Preservation Management: Implementing Short–term Strategies for Long–term Problems. Retrieved 9/10/07 at http://www.library.cornell.edu/iris/tutorial/dpm/foundation/index.html
- Wactlar, Howard D. and Michael G. Christel. "Digital Video Archives: Managing Through Metadata" in Building a National Strategy for Preservation: Issues in Digital Media Archiving. 2002. Retrieved 9/13/07 at http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub106/video.html
- Wilson, Andrew; Richard Wright; Malcolm Polfreman; Sheila Anderson; Simon Tanner; and Emma Beer. "Life Cycle and Organizational Models" in Moving Images and Sound Archiving Study. Arts and Humanities Data Service. 2006. Retrieved 9/10/07 at http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/programme_preservation/project_movingimagesound.aspx
- Additional readings and references TBA.
- Institutional repositories and multi–institutional projects.
- Review of attributes architectures and workflows of a digital repository. What is involved in planning and running a digital repository? How does a moving image archivist relate to such a repository and what needs to be considered in managing digital assets? The class will work with Steve on various scenarios for working with a digital repository to ingest and manage an archive's digital assets. Students will gain an understanding of the submission process, as well as gain an understanding of the different requirements and practices of digital repositories, roles and responsibilities, and how relationships between archivists and repositories are negotiated. (90 min.)
- Group work for Assignment #2 (90 min.)
Class 6: Wednesday, November 21
Due this class:
- Assignment #2
- Library of Congress. "Preserving Public Television" in The Library of Congress Webcasts. 2006. Accessed 1/24/07 at http://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature_wdesc.php?rec=3848
- Library of Congress Audio-Visual Prototyping Project, "Typical Elements for Use in a Statement of Work for the Digital Conversion of Sound Recordings and Related Documents" on the web site of the Library of Congress Audio-Visual Prototyping Project. 1999. Accessed 1/24/07 at http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/mopic/avprot/audioSOW.html
- Visit by staff from Preserving Digital Public Television: the NYU/WNET/WGBH NDIIPP project, a model for management of born digital video materials. (90 min.)
- Presentation and discussion of findings of Assignment #2 (90 min.)
Class 7: Monday, December 3
Due this class:
- Review the web site of the Archivists' Toolkit at http://archiviststoolkit.org/index.html
- Visit by Lee Mandel, Project Team Manager, Archivists' Toolkit (invited). The Archivists' Toolkit is an archival management system for both analog materials and digital files, and is compatible with metadata and data transmission standards including EAD 2002, MARC XML, METS, MODS, and Dublin Core. (90 min.)
- Returning to traditional archival principles, and considering the semester's work, discussion about selection, appraisal, and triage of digital materials. Also, the impact of digital materials on archival practice and research. What additional research/practice is needed to prepare archivists for processing and preserving digitized and born digital materials, and for using digital repositories? (60 min.)
- Review and critique of semester's work (30 min.)
Plagiarism and other violations of the University's published policies are serious offenses and will be punished severely. Plagiarism includes presenting or paraphrasing a phrase, sentence, or passage of a published work (including material from the World-Wide Web) in a paper or exam answer without quotation marks and attribution of the source, submitting your own original work toward requirements in more than one class without the prior permission of the instructors, submitting a paper written by someone else, submitting as your own work any portion of a paper or research that you purchased from another person or commercial firm, and presenting in any other way the work, ideas, data, or words of someone else without attribution. These are punishable offenses whether intended or unintended (e.g., occurs through poor citations or confusion about how to reference properly).