• About
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I am an assistant professor at the NYU Department of Linguistics in New York City.

My main work is on the formal semantics of natural language. I also teach and have a background in computational linguistics, natural language processing and formal language theory.Picture

As a formal semanticist, I try to translate every word to a math expression so that when you put together all the words in a sentence, you get a larger math expression that is true if the sentence is true, and false if the sentence is false. I do this in order to find the precise meanings of certain words and the way these meanings come together in sentences. As a computational linguist, I try to teach computers how to read, and how to figure out the meaning of what they have read.

A more detailed description of my research, as well as downloadable papers, can be found under the Research tab.

CV:

My CV (PDF) can be downloaded here.

Education:

From 2010 to 2012, I was a postdoctoral researcher (wissenschaftlicher Angestellter) at the Tübinger Zentrum für Linguistik (TüZLi) at the Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen.

I received my Ph.D. degree from the Department of Linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania in December 2010. My dissertation advisors were Cleo Condoravdi at Stanford, and Aravind K. Joshi at Penn. From 2009 to summer 2010 I was a visiting researcher at the Natural Language Theory and Technology Group at the Palo Alto Research Center (formerly Xerox PARC) and an exchange scholar at the Department of Linguistics at Stanford.

I received a Master of Science in Engineering from Penn's Department of Computer and Information Science in 2007.

Statement of research:

I use mathematical systems such as logic and mereology (the theory of part-whole relations) to study the meanings of words and sentences in ordinary English. Within formal semantics, I am mainly interested in distributivity, aspect and measurement, which I study from the point of view of algebraic semantics. My recent work has connected the meanings of distributive words such as each or every to the way language measures quantities and events, as in three liters of water and run for three hours.

I also study event semantics, quantification, definite descriptions, and donkey pronouns.

I am also interested in connecting linguistics with the neighboring fields of philosophy and computer science. Some of my work is in formal language theory, computational linguistics, and computational semantics. My research in these areas has focused on investigating tree-adjoining grammar from different angles, such as treebanking, dependency parsing, and computational complexity.

  • All Papers
  • Formal Semantics
  • Formal Language Theory
  • NLP
  • The common core of distributivity, aspect, and measurement. Talk given at various occasions (dissertation summary).

2014:

  • Champollion, Lucas. Reply to Roger Schwarzschild on event semantics.
  • Champollion, Lucas. Distributivity, collectivity, and cumulativity.
  • Champollion, Lucas. Covert distributivity in algebraic event semantics.
  • Champollion, Lucas. Overt distributivity in algebraic event semantics.
  • Champollion, Lucas, and Manfred Krifka (to appear, 2014). Mereology. In: P. Dekker and M. Aloni (eds), Cambridge Handbook of Semantics. Cambridge University Press.
  • Champollion, Lucas. The interaction of compositional semantics and event semantics. Submitted.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2014). Back to events: More on the logic of verbal modification. Presented at the 38th Penn Linguistics Colloquium (PLC 38), University of Pennsylvania, March 30, 2014.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2014). Every boy bought two sausages each: Distributivity and dependent numerals. Presented at WCCFL 32 (32nd West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics), USC, March 7 2014.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2014). Ten men and women got married today. Under review (JoS).

2013:

  • Champollion, Lucas (2013). Man and woman: the last obstacle for boolean coordination. Proceedings of the 19th Amsterdam Colloquium (December 18-20, 2013). Maria Aloni, Michael Franke, and Floris Roelofsen (eds.)
  • Champollion, Lucas (2013): The scope and processing of for-adverbials: A reply to Deo and Piñango. Proceedings of the 23rd Semantics and Linguistic Theory Conference, held at the University of California, Santa Cruz, May 3 - 5, 2013, edited by Todd Snider, p. 432-452.

2012:

  • Champollion, Lucas (2012). Each vs. jeweils: A cover-based view on distance-distributivity. In: Maria Aloni, Floris Roelofsen, Galit Weidman Sassoon, Katrin Schulz, Vadim Kimmelman and Matthijs Westera (editors), Proceedings of the 18th Amsterdam Colloquium (December 19-21, 2011).
    • Online at SpringerLink
    • Pre-print: PDF
    • See also the extended version below (presentation at Potsdam University).
  • Champollion, Lucas (2012). Each vs. jeweils: A cover-based view on distance-distributivity. University of Potsdam, May 2012. (Extended version of the AC 2011 paper.)
  • Champollion, Lucas (2012). Temporal dependencies: anaphora vs. movement. Poster presentation at the 35th GLOW colloquium. Potsdam, March 28-30, 2012.

2011:

  • Champollion, Lucas (2011). All. Presented at the 2011 Philosophers' Rally (Zlot Filosoficzny). June 24-26, 2011. Toruń, Poland.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2011). Distributivity and same. Presented at the 12th Szklarska Poręba workshop, Szklarska Poręba, Poland, March 12, 2011.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2011). Lexicalized non-local MCTAG with dominance links is NP-complete. In: Journal of Logic, Language, and Information, 20(3): 343-359.
    • Online at SpringerLink
    • Pre-print version: PDF
  • Krasikova, Sveta, and Lucas Champollion (2011). Two 'many' modifiers. Presented at the Workshop on Modification With and Without Modifiers (MDF 2011). Madrid, December 15-16, 2011.
  • The scope of for-adverbials: A reply to Deo and Pinango. Workshop on aspect and modality in lexical semantics. University of Stuttgart, September 2011.
  • For-adverbials and the scope of indefinites. Workshop "Indefinites and beyond". University of Göttingen, November 2011.
  • Temporal prepositional phrases and implicit variables. Workshop in honor of Arnim von Stechow. University of Konstanz, November 2011.

2010:

Dissertation:

Title: Parts of a whole: Distributivity as a bridge between aspect and measurement

Supervisor: Cleo Condoravdi

 

  • Champollion, Lucas (2010). Quantification and negation in event semantics. In: Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication, Vol. 6. Barbara H. Partee, Michael Glanzberg and Jurgis Skilters, pages 1-23. Manhattan, KS: New Prairie Press. DOI: 10.4148/biyclc.v6i0.1563
  • Champollion, Lucas (2010). Cumulative readings of every do not provide evidence for events and thematic roles. In: M. Aloni, H. Bastiaanse, T. de Jager, and K. Schulz, editors, Logic, Language and Meaning, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 213-222. Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010 (Proceedings of the 17th Amsterdam Colloquium, December 16-18, 2009).
    • Paper: PDF (final postproceedings version)
    • Slides from the presentation: PDF
  • Champollion, Lucas (2010). For-adverbials and the specified quantity generalization. Presented at the 34th Penn Linguistics Colloquium. University of Pennsylvania, March 19-21, 2010.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2010). Quantification in event semantics. Presented at the 6th International Symposium of Cognition, Logic and Communication. Formal Semantics and Pragmatics: Discourse, Context, and Models. November 19-21. Riga, Latvia.
    • Superseded by "Quantification and negation in event semantics". See above.
  • Champollion, Lucas, and Uli Sauerland (2010). Move and accommodate: A solution to Haddock's puzzle. In: Empirical Issues in Syntax and Semantics 8, Olivier Bonami and Patricia Cabredo Hofherr (eds.).
    • Paper: PDF
    • Slides from the presentation: PDF
  • Sui, Yanyan, and Lucas Champollion (2010). Chinese "dou" and cumulative quantification. Poster at the Mid-Atlantic Colloquium of Studies in Meaning (MACSIM) workshop, University of Pennsylvania, April 10, 2010.

2009:

  • Champollion, Lucas (2009). Davidsonian events and thematic roles: are they necessary? A reply to Kratzer and Schein. Presentation at the workshop on Language, Communication and Rational Agency, Stanford, May 30-31, 2009.
    • Slides (PDF) (Superseded by "Cumulative readings of every do not provide evidence for events and thematic roles". See above.)
  • Champollion, Lucas (2009). For-adverbials quantify over subintervals, not subevents. Presentation at the CHRONOS 9 international conference on tense, aspect and modality, Paris, September 2-4, 2009.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2009). A unified account of distributivity, for-adverbials, and pseudopartitives. Proceedings of the 14th Sinn und Bedeutung conference, pp. 84-100. Vienna, September 28-30, 2009.
  • Champollion, Lucas, and Uli Sauerland (2009). Definiteness, inverse linking, and narrowing. Presentation at the Tenth Semantic Fest, Stanford University, March 13-14, 2009.
    • Handout (PDF)
    • Superseded by "An inverse linking account of nested definites", Sinn und Bedeutung (2009). See above.
  • Champollion, Lucas, and Uli Sauerland (2009). An inverse linking account of nested definites. Presentation at the 14th Sinn und Bedeutung conference, Vienna, September 28-30, 2009.
    • Slides (PDF)
    • Handout (PDF, 6 slides per page)
    • Also presented at the Colloque de Syntaxe et Sémantique à Paris (CSSP, September 23-25, 2009) under the title "Move and accommodate: A solution to Haddock's Puzzle". See above for the proceedings paper.
  • A unified account of nominal distributivity, for-adverbials, and measure phrases. Stanford University, April 2009. Outdated.

2008:

  • Champollion, Lucas (2008). Binding theory in LTAG. Proceedings of the Ninth International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammar and related formalisms (TAG+9), Tübingen, Germany.
    • Paper: PDF
    • Slides from the presentation: PPTPDF
  • Champollion, Lucas (2008). The influence of goals on ambiguities in certain donkey sentences. Presentation at the Fourth Formal Semantics in Moscow workshop (FSIM 4), April 5-6, 2008.
  • Shen, Libin, Lucas Champollion, and Aravind K. Joshi (2008). LTAG-spinal and the Treebank: A new resource for incremental, dependency and semantic parsing. Language Resources and Evaluation, 42(1): 1-19.
    • Online at SpringerLink
    • Pre-print version: PDF
    • See also the website to this paper.

2007:

  • Champollion, Lucas (2007). Lexicalized non-local MCTAG with dominance links is NP-complete. Mathematics of Language 10, UCLA, July 28-30, 2007, Los Angeles, USA.
    • Paper: PDF
    • Superseded by the 2011 JoLLI paper.
    • Handout from the MOL talk with sample derivation: PDF
  • Champollion, Lucas, Prashanth Mannem, and Livio Robaldo (2007). Bidirectional dependency parsing trained on the Turin University Treebank. Proceedings of the EVALITA 2007 Workshop. Rome, Italy, September 10th, 2007. Special issue of Intelligenza Artifiziale, Vol. IV(2), pages 48-49.
  • Champollion, Lucas, Joshua Tauberer, and Maribel Romero (2007). "The Penn Lambda Calculator: Pedagogical Software for Natural Language Semantics", in T. Holloway King and E. M. Bender (eds.), Proceedings of the Grammar Engineering across Frameworks (GEAF) 2007 Workshop. Stanford, CA, July 13-15 2007. CSLI On-line Publications.

2006:

  • Champollion, Lucas (2006). On the (ir)relevance of psycholinguistics for anaphora resolution. Workshop on ambiguity in anaphora, ESSLLI 2006, Málaga, Spain.
Coordination Donkey sentences Mereology Other
Definite descriptions Event semantics Quantification  
Dissertation For-adverbials Same  
Distance distributivity Lambda calculator Temporal semantics  

Coordination:

  • Champollion, Lucas (2014). Ten men and women got married today. Under review (JoS).
  • Champollion, Lucas. The interaction of compositional semantics and event semantics. Submitted.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2013). Man and woman: the last obstacle for boolean coordination. Proceedings of the 19th Amsterdam Colloquium (December 18-20, 2013). Maria Aloni, Michael Franke, and Floris Roelofsen (eds.)

Definite descriptions:

  • Champollion, Lucas, and Uli Sauerland (2010). Move and accommodate: A solution to Haddock's puzzle. In: Empirical Issues in Syntax and Semantics 8, Olivier Bonami and Patricia Cabredo Hofherr (eds.).
    • Paper: PDF
    • Slides from the presentation: PDF
  • Champollion, Lucas, and Uli Sauerland (2009). An inverse linking account of nested definites. Presentation at the 14th Sinn und Bedeutung conference, Vienna, September 28-30, 2009.
    • Slides (PDF)
    • Handout (PDF, 6 slides per page)
    • Also presented at the Colloque de Syntaxe et Sémantique à Paris (CSSP, September 23-25, 2009) under the title "Move and accommodate: A solution to Haddock's Puzzle". See above for the proceedings paper.
  • Champollion, Lucas, and Uli Sauerland (2009). Definiteness, inverse linking, and narrowing. Presentation at the Tenth Semantic Fest, Stanford University, March 13-14, 2009.
    • Handout (PDF)
    • Superseded by "An inverse linking account of nested definites", Sinn und Bedeutung (2009). See above.

Dissertation:

Title: Parts of a whole: Distributivity as a bridge between aspect and measurement

Supervisor: Cleo Condoravdi

Original proposal: Aspect, plurality and quantification

The proposal is superseded by my dissertation and does not reflect my current thinking anymore. My dissertation proposal consists of:

Distance distributivity:

  • Champollion, Lucas. Reply to Roger Schwarzschild on event semantics.
  • Champollion, Lucas. Overt distributivity in algebraic event semantics.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2014). Every boy bought two sausages each: Distributivity and dependent numerals. Presented at WCCFL 32 (32nd West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics), USC, March 7, 2014.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2012). Each vs. jeweils: A cover-based view on distance-distributivity. In: Maria Aloni, Floris Roelofsen, Galit Weidman Sassoon, Katrin Schulz, Vadim Kimmelman and Matthijs Westera (editors), Proceedings of the 18th Amsterdam Colloquium (December 19-21, 2011).
    • Online at SpringerLink
    • Pre-print: PDF
    • See also the extended version below (presentation at Potsdam University).
  • Champollion, Lucas (2012). Each vs. jeweils: A cover-based view on distance-distributivity. University of Potsdam, May 2012. (Extended version of the AC 2011 paper.)

Donkey sentences:

  • Champollion, Lucas (2008). The influence of goals on ambiguities in certain donkey sentences. Presentation at the Fourth Formal Semantics in Moscow workshop (FSIM 4), April 5-6, 2008.

Event semantics:

  • Champollion, Lucas. Reply to Roger Schwarzschild on event semantics.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2014). The interaction of compositional semantics and event semantics. Submitted.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2014). Back to events: More on the logic of verbal modification. Presented at the 38th Penn Linguistics Colloquium (PLC 38), University of Pennsylvania, March 30, 2014.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2010). Quantification and negation in event semantics. In: Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication, Vol. 6. Barbara H. Partee, Michael Glanzberg and Jurgis Skilters, pages 1-23. Manhattan, KS: New Prairie Press. DOI: 10.4148/biyclc.v6i0.1563
  • Champollion, Lucas (2010). Quantification in event semantics. Presented at the 6th International Symposium of Cognition, Logic and Communication. Formal Semantics and Pragmatics: Discourse, Context, and Models. November 19-21. Riga, Latvia.
    • Superseded by "Quantification and negation in event semantics". See above.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2010). Cumulative readings of every do not provide evidence for events and thematic roles. In: M. Aloni, H. Bastiaanse, T. de Jager, and K. Schulz, editors, Logic, Language and Meaning, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 213-222. Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010 (Proceedings of the 17th Amsterdam Colloquium, December 16-18, 2009).
    • Paper: PDF (final postproceedings version)
    • Slides from the presentation: PDF
  • Champollion, Lucas (2009). Davidsonian events and thematic roles: are they necessary? A reply to Kratzer and Schein. Presentation at the workshop on Language, Communication and Rational Agency, Stanford, May 30-31, 2009.
    • Slides (PDF) (Superseded by "Cumulative readings of every do not provide evidence for events and thematic roles". See above.)

For-adverbials:

  • Champollion, Lucas. Reply to Roger Schwarzschild on event semantics.
  • Champollion, Lucas. Covert distributivity in algebraic event semantics.
  • Champollion, Lucas. Overt distributivity in algebraic event semantics.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2014). The interaction of compositional semantics and event semantics. Submitted.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2013): The scope and processing of for-adverbials: A reply to Deo and Piñango. Proceedings of the 23rd Semantics and Linguistic Theory Conference, held at the University of California, Santa Cruz, May 3 - 5, 2013, edited by Todd Snider, p. 432-452.
  • For-adverbials and the scope of indefinites. Workshop "Indefinites and beyond". University of Güttingen, November 2011.
  • The scope of for-adverbials: A reply to Deo and Pinango. Workshop on aspect and modality in lexical semantics. University of Stuttgart, September 2011.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2009). For-adverbials quantify over subintervals, not subevents. Presentation at the CHRONOS 9 international conference on tense, aspect and modality, Paris, September 2-4, 2009.

See also:


Lambda calculator:

  • Champollion, Lucas (2014). The interaction of compositional semantics and event semantics. Submitted.
  • Champollion, Lucas, Joshua Tauberer, and Maribel Romero (2007). "The Penn Lambda Calculator: Pedagogical Software for Natural Language Semantics", in T. Holloway King and E. M. Bender (eds.), Proceedings of the Grammar Engineering across Frameworks (GEAF) 2007 Workshop. Stanford, CA, July 13-15 2007. CSLI On-line Publications.

Mereology:

See also my dissertation.

  • The common core of distributivity, aspect, and measurement. Talk given at various occasions (dissertation summary).
  • Champollion, Lucas, and Manfred Krifka (to appear, 2014). Mereology. In: P. Dekker and M. Aloni (eds), Cambridge Handbook of Semantics. Cambridge University Press.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2009). A unified account of distributivity, for-adverbials, and pseudopartitives. Proceedings of the 14th Sinn und Bedeutung conference, pp. 84-100. Vienna, September 28-30, 2009.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2010). For-adverbials and the specified quantity generalization. Presented at the 34th Penn Linguistics Colloquium. University of Pennsylvania, March 19-21, 2010.
  • A unified account of nominal distributivity, for-adverbials, and measure phrases. Stanford University, April 2009. Outdated.

Quantification:

  • Champollion, Lucas. Reply to Roger Schwarzschild on event semantics.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2014). The interaction of compositional semantics and event semantics. Submitted.
  • Krasikova, Sveta, and Lucas Champollion (2011). Two 'many' modifiers. Presented at the Workshop on Modification With and Without Modifiers (MDF 2011). Madrid, December 15-16, 2011.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2011). All. Presented at the 2011 Philosophers' Rally (Zlot Filosoficzny). June 24-26, 2011. Toruń, Poland.
  • Sui, Yanyan, and Lucas Champollion (2010). Chinese "dou" and cumulative quantification. Poster at the Mid-Atlantic Colloquium of Studies in Meaning (MACSIM) workshop, University of Pennsylvania, April 10, 2010.

See also:


Same:

  • Champollion, Lucas (2011). Distributivity and same. Presented at the 12th Szklarska Poręba workshop, Szklarska Poręba, Poland, March 12, 2011.

Temporal semantics:

  • Champollion, Lucas (2014). Back to events: More on the logic of verbal modification. Presented at the 38th Penn Linguistics Colloquium (PLC 38), University of Pennsylvania, March 30, 2014.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2012). Temporal dependencies: anaphora vs. movement. Poster presentation at the 35th GLOW colloquium. Potsdam, March 28-30, 2012.
  • Temporal prepositional phrases and implicit variables. Workshop in honor of Arnim von Stechow. University of Konstanz, November 2011.

See also:


Other:

(Please email me for these papers.)

  • Champollion, Lucas, and Maya Ravindranath (2006). The formal semantics of positive and negative anymore. Manuscript.
  • Champollion, Lucas (2006). A game-theoretic account of adjective ordering restrictions. Manuscript.

Tree-adjoining grammar:

  • Champollion, Lucas (2011). Lexicalized non-local MCTAG with dominance links is NP-complete. In: Journal of Logic, Language, and Information, 20(3): 343-359.
    • Online at SpringerLink
    • Pre-print version: PDF
  • Champollion, Lucas (2007). Lexicalized non-local MCTAG with dominance links is NP-complete. Mathematics of Language 10, UCLA, July 28-30, 2007, Los Angeles, USA.
    • Paper: PDF
    • Superseded by the 2011 JoLLI paper.
    • Handout from the MOL talk with sample derivation: PDF
Anaphora resolution Tree-adjoining grammar Dependency parsing  

Anaphora resolution:

  • Champollion, Lucas (2006). On the (ir)relevance of psycholinguistics for anaphora resolution. Workshop on ambiguity in anaphora, ESSLLI 2006, Málaga, Spain.

Tree-adjoining grammar:

  • Champollion, Lucas (2008). Binding theory in LTAG. Proceedings of the Ninth International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammar and related formalisms (TAG+9), Tübingen, Germany.
    • Paper: PDF
    • Slides from the presentation: PPTPDF

Dependency parsing:

  • Champollion, Lucas, Prashanth Mannem, and Livio Robaldo (2007). Bidirectional dependency parsing trained on the Turin University Treebank. Proceedings of the EVALITA 2007 Workshop. Rome, Italy, September 10th, 2007. Special issue of Intelligenza Artifiziale, Vol. IV(2), pages 48-49.

See also:

  • Graduate
  • Undergraduate
  • Summer Schools

Fall 2014:

  • Algebraic Semantics - Linguistic Applications of Mereology NYU
    (official title: Seminar in Semantics)

Spring 2014:

Spring 2013:

  • Algebraic Semantics - Linguistic Applications of Mereology NYU
    (official title: Seminar in Semantics)

Fall 2012:

Fall 2014:

Spring 2014:

Fall 2013:

  • Language NYU

Spring 2013:

  • Language NYU

Summer 2015:

Summer 2014:

Summer 2012:

[1] The Lambda Calculator is an interactive, graphical, pedagogical computer program that helps students of formal semantics practice the typed lambda calculus.

[2] Java API for the LTAG-spinal treebank. Follow the link for download information or browse Javadoc online.

[3] tblplus.zip: a transformation-based system that learns historical spelling changes. Note: The version that can be downloaded here isn't functional unless fntbl is installed on the same computer and some paths in the scripts are adapted.

  • This project grew out of the necessity to produce an automatic morphological analysis for Middle French, with the ultimate goal of contributing to the production of a Middle French Treebank (by Tony Kroch). Since morphological analyzers are readily available for Modern French, I used transformation-based learning to convert the spelling of Middle French texts to make them look as similar to Modern French as possible with respect to morphology.
  • The tool is installed at Penn on alpha.nlp.liniac.upenn.edu in the directory /home/champoll/tblplus. Check out the README file for a more detailed description of the project.

Selected linguistics links:

Completely different stuff:

My Erdős number is 4:

  • Aronov, B.; Erdős, P.; Goddard, W.; Kleitman, D. J.; Klugerman, M.; Pach, J.; Schulman, L. J. Crossing families. Combinatorica 14 (1994), no. 2, 127-134.
  • Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Aggarwal, Alok; Aronov, B.Kosaraju, S. Rao; Schieber, Baruch; Suri, Subhash Computing external farthest neighbors for a simple polygon. First Canadian Conference on Computational Geometry (Montreal, PQ, 1989). Discrete Appl. Math. 31 (1991), no. 2, 97-111.
  • Joshi, A. K.Kosaraju, S. R.; Yamada, H. M. String adjunct grammars. I. Local and distributed adjunction. Information and Control 21 (1972), 93-116.
  • Shen, L.; Champollion, L.Joshi, A.K. LTAG-spinal and the Treebank: A new resource for incremental, dependency and semantic parsing. Language Resources and Evaluation, 42 (2008), no. 1, 1-19.

The singular includes the plural; the plural includes the singular. "And" as well as "or" shall be construed either disjunctively or conjunctively, to bring within the scope of this subpoena all responses that might otherwise be construed to be outside its scope. "Each" shall be construed to include "every" and "every" shall be construed to include "each". "Any" shall be construed to include "all" and "all" shall be construed to include "any." The use of a verb in any tense shall be construed as the user of the verb in a past or present tense, whenever necessary to bring within the scope of the document request all responses which might otherwise be construed to be outside its scope.

--- typical language from a subpoena

nyulogo academia