Universal Grammar in Prolog


Prof. Ray C. Dougherty
New York University | Linguistics Department

Table of Contents

If you have any comments about these pages, please let us know. Should we place more of these pages on line? Do you benefit from these pages? If you are a student at NYU, you may help in developing these pages, see the HTML Gesellschaft. Your ideas and comments will lead to modifications and improvements.

Why Can't Humans Talk to a Computer in English?

These pages house information about how to access data on the Internet to answer the following question under the stated assumptions:

Our Basic Linguistic and Computational Concepts

The Natural Language Computing Project at NYU has placed over two hundred images on line to illustrate:

Three Books on the Natural Language Computing Project

A Sample of the Hundreds of Figures on This Site

All can be downloaded and printed on a postscript printer to make an overhead transparency for projection to a class.

Prolog and LISP Interpreters/Compilers and Programs

  1. If you have no idea what you are doing, go to the beginning: The First Dot..
  2. If you want to see simple examples of what the software can do, check the Beginner's Workbook in Computational Linguistics.
  3. Projects in LISP and Prolog are discussed at the NLC Project.


There are several pretty-printers for drawing phrase markers to represent the output of parsing programs. The following find favor with students at NYU.

  1. Prolog Tree Drawing Program (zip) of Christoph Lehner (works in SWI and Quintus Prolog).

  2. DOS/Windows Tree Drawing Program (gif) of Oleg Kostko (works in DOS and Windows and produces a .bmp bitmap of the tree).

All of the programs developed in the NYU Linguistics Department to process human language data in Prolog and Lisp can be downloaded from this site. The Prolog and Lisp interpreters and compilers can also be downloaded. If you have any difficulties with the software, please let us know. doughert@acf2.nyu.edu

Downloading Shareware Versions of LISP and Prolog

The how, what, when, where, who, and why of the following Prolog materials are described in detail in the book Natural Language Computing.

For discussion of the Lisp materials, see the Natural Language Computing Project. For questions about the Lisp programs, contact Marc Schwarz.

Downloading NYU Linguistics Department and NLCP Software