Stress is an inevitable part of life; it can take a toll on students’ physical health, emotional wellbeing, and academic success unless they learn to manage it appropriately. College students experience stress related to changes in lifestyle, increased workload, new responsibilities, and interpersonal relationships.1 Extreme levels of stress can hinder work effectiveness and lead to poor academic performance and attrition.2 College students who experienced stressful life events also reported worse health outcomes and reduced quality of life.3 Introducing successful coping strategies may help students avoid the destructive consequences of excessive stress.
- College students now report being more stressed-out than ever before.4
- Stress is the number one reported impediment to academic performance.6
- 55% of students, nationally, claimed their biggest stressor to be academic in nature.7
- 6 in 10 college students report having felt so stressed they couldn’t get their work done on one or more occasions.8
- Nationally, 53% of students report having felt so stressed they didn’t want to hang out with friends on one or more occasions.8
- Many of the emotional and physical symptoms that occur commonly in the college population, such as headaches, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and the inability to cope, can be attributed to or exacerbated by stress.9
- Negative physical effects of stress include immune system suppression, which can increase susceptibility to physical illness and psychological conditions such as anxiety and depression.10
- Students who engaged in meditation practices demonstrated significantly greater reductions in perceived stress than students who did not.11
Suggestions for Administrators & Staff
This page is intended to be a resource containing suggestions for what you can do to help decrease the negative impact of stress among NYU students.
• Encourage students to develop safe, regular stress reduction routines. Model stress-management and self-care techniques within your department’s activities for students.
o Promote available stress reduction opportunities to students. Techniques such as meditation,25 biofeedback,26 and mindfulness27 have been shown to reduce the negative consequences associated with stress among students. NYU offers a number of stress reduction opportunities within and outside of the university community. Visit the Stress Resource Guide and LiveWellNYU for on-campus opportunities and resources to help students manage their stress.
o Start your student meetings with “Highs and Lows” to remind them of funny events or stories from the week and relax before tending to your department’s business.
o Post, or encourage students to post, a daily inspirational quote or joke to your department’s facebook group, blog, or listserv as an easy way to reduce student stress.
o Use the five minutes at the beginning or end of your meeting to conduct a stress reduction exercise such as meditation or diaphragmatic breathing. For tips or downloadable MP3s, visit the NYU Relaxation Oasis.
o Use the first five minutes of an activity to conduct a stress reduction exercise such as meditation or diaphragmatic breathing. For tips or downloadable MP3s, visit the NYU Relaxation Oasis.
• Host a free Stressbusters event for your students. Free backrubs sponsored by the Health Promotion Office! Request Stressbusters for your next event, class, program, meeting or special occasion. Learn about upcoming Stressbusters events by joining their listserv.
• Advise your students to create a schedule in order to prioritize tasks. Poor planning is a common cause of excessive stress among students. Students who see themselves as being in control of their time, a feature indicative of good time management, report experiencing less negative characteristics related to stress.28 Practice with time management can lead to better study habits, improved learning, and overall increased productivity.
• Offer resources and advice to facilitate students’ navigation of University departments and systems. A large university system can seem daunting or stressful to negotiate; your assistance could make all the difference to a student who is frustrated or confused. In particular be aware of, and understand, that financial resources can be a source of stress for students. Should students be struggling financially, encourage them to engage with the Bursar, Financial Aid Office, and the NYU Money Management Resources page sponsored by the Division of Student Affairs.
• Encourage students to utilize university academic support services. Recommend that students utilize university academic support services such as the Academic Resource Center, the Writing Center, or the University Learning Center. Tutorial support can safeguard students from the consequences of stress.29 As a staff member in a position of respect and authority, your willingness to speak openly and positively about supportive services could help eliminate perceived stigma or shame for some students needing help.
• Talk about where students can go for help before they need help. At the beginning of the semester and during difficult times of the semester, like around mid-terms and finals, remind students that they can call the Wellness Exchange at 212-443-9999 or speak to a counselor at the Student Health Center. Presenting these resources in an open and nonjudgmental way will help students see you as an ally while making them aware of helpful resources.
• Be accessible to students. Creating an approachable and welcoming environment can contribute to a student’s sense of belonging in the university community, which can positively impact his or her ability to cope effectively with stress.30
a) Negative impact on academic performance due to stress
- Data Source: ACHA #45D5
- Survey Question: Within the last 12 months, have any of the following affected your academic performance (stress)?
- Definition: Proportion received lower-grade exam; received lower-grade course; received incomplete/dropped; significant disruption thesis
b) Experiencing more than average stress
- Data Source: ACHA #37
- Survey Question: Within the last 12 months, how would you rate the overall level of stress you have experienced?
- Definition: proportion rating overall stress as more than average stress or tremendous stress
- Ross, S.E., Niebling, & B.C., Heckert, T.M. (1999). Sources of stress among college students. College Student Journal, 33, 312-317.
- Grace, T.W. (1997). Health problems of college students. Journal of American College Health, 45, 243-250.
- Damush, T.T., Hays, R.D., & DiMatto, M.R. (1997). Stressful life events and health-related quality of life in college students. Journal of College Student Development, 38, 181-190.
- Pryor, J.H., Hurtado, S., DeAngelo, L., Palucki Blake, L., & Tran, S. (2010). The American freshman: National norms fall 2010. The Higher Education Research Institute. Retrieved from http://heri.ucla.edu/pr-display.php?prQry=55
- American College Health Association. (2011). American College Health Association – National College Health Assessment 2011 NYU Data. Hanover, MD.
- American College Health Association. American College Association – National College Health Assessment 2010 National Data. Hanover, MD.
- Dusselier, L., Dunn, B., Yongyi W., Shelley II, M., & Whalen, D. (2005). Personal, health, academic, and environmental predictors of stress in residence halls. Journal of American College Health, 54(1), 15-24.
- MtvU, Jed Foundation, & The Associated Press. (2009). mtvU AP 2009 Economy, College Stress and Mental Health Poll. Retrieved from: http://www.halfofus.com/_media/_pr/may09_exec.pdf
- Pace, C.R., & Stern, G.G. (1958). An approach to the measurement of psychological characteristics of college environments. Journal of Educational Psychology, 49(5): 269-277.
- Quick, J.D., Horn, R.S., & Quick, J.C. (1987). Health consequences of stress. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 8( 2), 19 – 36.
- Oman, D., Shapiro, S.L., Thoresen, C.E., Plante, T.G., & Flinders, T. (2008). Meditation lowers stress and supports forgiveness among college students: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of American College Health, 56(5), 569-578.
- Dahlin, M., Joneborg, N. & Runeson, B. (2005). Stress and depression among medical students: A cross-sectional study. Medical Education, 260, 2521–2528.
- Sloboda, J. A. (1990). Combating examination stress among university students: Action research in an institutional context. British Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 18, 124-136.
- Campbell, R.L, & Svenson, L.W. (1992). Perceived level of stress among university undergraduate students in Edmonton, Canada. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75, 552-554.
- Klainberg, M., Ewing, B., & Ryan, M. (2010). Reducing stress on a college campus. Journal of the New York State Nurses Association, 41(2), 4-7.
- Jokl, M.V. (1984). The psychological effects on man of air movement and the colour of his surroundings. Applied Ergonomics, 15(2), 119-126.
- Conners, D.A. (1983): The school environment: A link to understanding stress. Theory Into Practice, 22(1), 15-20.
- Welle, P. D. & Graf, H. M. (2011). Effective Lifestyle Habits and Coping Strategie s for Stress Tolerance among College Students. American Journal of Health Education, 42(2), 96-105.
- Lumley, M. A., & Provenzano, K. M. (2003). Stress management through written emotional disclosure improves academic perform ance among college students with physical symptoms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(3), 641-649. doi:10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1681
- Fehring, R.J. (1983). Effects of biofeedback-aided relaxation on the psychological stress symptoms of college students. Nursing Research. 32(6), 362-6.
- Warnecke, E., Quinn, S., Ogden, K., Towle, N. & Nelson, M.R. A randomised controlled trial of the effects of mindfulness practice on medical student stress levels. Medical Education, 45(4), 381–388.
- Landow, M.V. (2006). Stress and mental health of college students. Nova Publishers.
- Gammon, J. & Morgan-Samuel, H. (2005). A study to ascertain the effect of structured student tutorial support on student stress, self-esteem and coping. Nurse Education in Practice, 5(3), 161-171.
- Dwyer, A.L. & Cummings, A.L. (2001). Stress, self-efficacy, social support, and coping strategies in university students. Canadian Journal of Counseling, 35(3).
- Dahlin, M., Joneborg, N. & Runeson, B. (2005) Stress and depression among medical students: A cross-sectional study. Medical Education, 260: 2521–2528.
- Fehring, R.J. (1983). Effects of biofeedback-aided relaxation on the psychological stress symptoms of college students. Nursing Research. 32(6): 362-6.
- Warnecke, E., Quinn, S., Ogden, K., Towle, N. & Nelson, M.R. A randomised controlled trial of the effects of mindfulness practice on medical student stress levels. Medical Education, 45(4): 381–388.
- Macan, T. H., Shahani, C., Dipboye, R. L., & Phillips, A. P. (1990). College students' time management: Correlations with academic performance and stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 760-768. doi:10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.1240
- Parenting a College Student. University of Michigan. Retrieved 1/5/11 from: http://parents.umich.edu/newstudent/parenting/youradult.php. Gammon, J. & Morgan-Samuel, H. (2005). A study to ascertain the effect of structured student tutorial support on student stress, self-esteem and coping. Nurse Education in Practice, 5(3): 161-171.