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Reference for Data and System Classification

Covered Systems

This classification is applicable to a wide variety of IT resources which are connected to NYU-NET or are used for any NYU business purpose. A system may be any IT resource to which the security safeguards may be applied. Examples of systems include, but are not limited to:

  1. Desktop, laptop, or server computers running general purpose operating systems such as Windows, Mac OS, and Unix
  2. Network server applications, such as an FTP-server application
  3. Web applications, such as a wiki
  4. Databases

All of the above systems may perform their own authentication and authorization, logging and auditing, and have their own configurations which must be managed. Each of them is considered a compliance object to be protected.

Follow these steps to determine a system's classification:

  1. Determine the Data Classification of the data stored on the system.
  2. Determine the Availability Requirements of that system, including whether it is a server, or personal workstation.
  3. Select the appropriate Classification from the System Criticality Categories table.

A system owner may choose to classify a system as higher criticality than that indicated by the table. However, if they choose to do so, the system must meet the security measures for that higher level.

Data Classification

The authoritative source of information on data classification at NYU is the University Data Classification Table. It outlines four levels of data classification which are related to the impact of an unauthorized disclosure of the data in question. For the convenience of the reader, the data types are listed below along with descriptions and examples; however the table linked above is always the most accurate and up-to-date source of information on data classification.

Data Classification
Institutional Risk from Disclosure
Description
Examples
Restricted
High
Data whose unauthorized access or loss could seriously or adversely affect NYU, a partner, or the public.
  • Social Security number
  • Driver's license number
  • Bank/financial account number
  • Credit/debit card number (see "Special Data Types," below)
  • Electronic Protected Health Information
  • Central authentication credentials, when stored in large numbers
  • University financial data on central systems
Protected
Medium
Data with a less high level of importance, but that should be protected from general access.
  • University intellectual property
  • University proprietary data
  • Passport numbers
  • Final course grades
  • FERPA-covered records (see www.nyu.edu/apr/ferpa.html)
  • External Steward data
  • Human Resources data
  • Protected data related to research
Confidential
Low
All other non-public data not included in the Restricted or Protected classes
  • NetID
  • University Identification number
  • Licensed software
  • Other University-owned non-Public data
Public
None
All public data
  • General access data, such as that on unauthenticated portions of www.nyu.edu

Special Data Types

The system classification framework draws a distinction between systems which store data directly, systems which have privileged access to data, but which do not store it directly, and systems which make general use of data, as follows:

  • "Storing" data indicates that the data is transparently available through normal file system access methods. For example, data residing in NFS mounts or Windows mapped drives (e.g., an X: drive) is considered to be stored on any client systems which actively mount the shares, as well as the system which physically houses the disks. However, data residing in a database is considered to be stored only on the database server itself since no file system access methods allow clients to obtain direct access to the data.
  • "Privileged Access" exists when there is a non-file system method of accessing data that is stored on another system. For example, a web server that connects to a separate back-end database server has privileged access to data stored on that system. Similarly, the workstation of a system administrator who commonly logs into both servers with administrator credentials has privileged access to both systems.
  • "General use" includes access or processing of data by end-user workstations, using a non-privileged account.

Availability Requirements

There are three availability classifications, which represent the impact to the University if a given system were unavailable to perform its task.

Availability Classification
Institutional Risk from Disclosure
Description
Examples
High Availability
High
Loss of access to the system could have a significant impact on NYU, a partner, or the public.
  • Systems participate in a University-level disaster preparedness plan
  • Systems participate in the ITS XSC initiative
  • Systems have redundant hardware in separate geographic regions
  • Systems that serve 10,000 or more users
Medium Availability
Medium
Loss of access to the system could have a significant impact on a large number of users or multiple business units.
  • Systems participate in the disaster preparedness plan of a large University unit
  • Systems have redundant hardware in a single geographic region
  • Systems serve 1,000 to 10,000 users
Standard Availability
Low
Loss of access to the system could have a significant impact on an individual user or unit.
  • Systems do not participate in a disaster preparedness plan
  • Systems have no redundant hardware provisioned
  • Personal workstations
  • Small workgroup servers

Server/Personal Context

  • Servers are characterized by the presence of network accessible services, they are typically accessed simultaneously by many remote users concurrently, via the network services they provide.
  • Personal workstations typically do not have network accessible services, and are typically accessed by a single user at a time.

System Criticality Categories

System Criticality is determined according to the following table. When more than one category applies, the system should be classified in the highest applicable category.

System Classification
Classification Guidelines
Examples
High Criticality
Servers that store Restricted Data OR servers that host High Availability applications
  • A human resources database which stores employee Social Security numbers for tax purposes
  • The www.nyu.edu home page, which is designated as a channel for distributing information in the event of a campus emergency
Medium Criticality
Servers that store Protected Data OR servers that have privileged access to systems that store Restricted Data OR servers that host Medium Availability applications
  • A departmental file server where salary and benefits information is stored
  • A web server that stores no data locally, but that runs an application that accesses a human resources database stored on a separate database server that contains Social Security numbers of employees for tax purposes
  • The web server for a school which is required to deliver e-mail messages to students in the event of an emergency
Standard Criticality
Servers that store only Confidential or Public Data OR servers that have privileged access to systems that store Protected Data OR servers that host Standard Availability applications OR personal workstations
  • All personal workstations
  • All IT systems that are not classified as Medium or High Criticality
  • Workgroup servers that do not store Protected or Restricted Data

Related Policies

Send questions or comments to: security@nyu.edu.

Effective Date

August 1, 2010

Page last reviewed: August 1, 2010