The Logic of Political Survival Data Source

Bruce Bueno de Mesquita

Alastair Smith

Randolph Siverson

James Morrow


            Welcome to our data page. The material here contains the data we used in our book. Additionally, we have all the batch files we used to generate the results. We present these materials for several reasons. First, we are all believer in replication. The materials here allow anyone to replicate our results. This is particularly important since many of our results are presented in abbreviated form, rather than full regression output. Second, in the book we discuss and allude to many results that, for brevity, we do not present. Many of these analyses are contained here. Third, we believe the selectorate model is a power tool for explaining politics. While in the book we attempt to present results illustrative of the model’s implications, our analyses are far from comprehensive. In addition to the variables discussed in the book, the data contained here has numerous additional variables. For example we have numerous alternative measures of GDP. We hope the availability of this data will encourage scholars to pursue what we believe to be a fruitful research agenda.  Finally, we recognize that many scholars are best convinced when they ‘see it for themselves’. We think such skepticism is healthy. We have no doubt that scholars analyzing our results for themselves will we see the robustness of our results and recognize that we have not selectively picked only those results that directly support our arguments and ignored other.



To the best of our knowledge, the data we provide are either in the public domain (i.e. readily available on the internet or in printed form) or we have been granted the right to distribute the data (for instance, the WBDI). If you believe any of the data we provide does not fit within either of the first two categories then please contact us. 



Structure of the Material

            In compiling our data, we have utilized numerous existing works. We thank the scholars responsible for these studies for making their data available to us and others. Where appropriate we have included the original codebooks. We have four basic sections: our datasets, the code used to generate our results in batch files (and the coded used to compile the data), the output files for our results, and codebooks. All our materials are in STATA 7, the program we used throughout. This statistical package is available through  Several programs exist that convert data between various formats, for example StatTransfer (, although these will not convert the code that replicates our analyses. Many files are zipped to save space.



We have two basic datasets. In the first (bdm2s2_nation_year_data.dta), our unit of observation is nation-year. I.e. we have US 1950, 1951, 1952 and Canada 1950, 1951 etc… In the second (bdm2s2_leader_year_data.dta), the unit of observation is leader-year. Thus the same nation year might appear twice. For instance in the US 2001, both William J. Clinton and George W. Bush are coded as President.


As far as possible we indicate the origins of the variables, with variable labels. We also compile extracts from the appropriate codebooks for those interested in the details of the coding. The appendix to this document contains a list of variables. The following abbreviations indicate data sources: Banks refers to Arthur S. Banks Cross National Time Series Data Archive 2001 ( Polity 4 refers to the latest release of the Polity project. For complete documentation see ( WBDI (or WB) corresponds to the World Bank Development Indicators 2001. ACLP refers to Przeworski, Adam Michael Alvarez, José Antonio Cheibub and Fernando Limongi. 2000.  Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Material Well‑Being in the World, 1950‑1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. COW refers to the Correlates of War data project ( Datavine refers to a variety of dataset compiled on the web at Although we do not make use of these data they provide alternative coding for many of our variables, hence we include them in the data to allow robustness testing.



1)   Data

Nation Year Main Data: bdm2s2_nation_year_data.dta

Leader Data:

Constituent Data (Individual data used to compile our data):


1)      Batch files


2)      Results


3)      Codebooks


4)      The Logic of Political Survival. Our book manuscript in pdf format.



Errors and Updates This file documents errors that have been found in the data.



Main Sources

Polity 4

The Polity 4 data are currently housed at Center for International Development and Conflict Management at the University of Maryland, College Park,  A description of the POLITY project and data are contained in the codebook section (the information is downloaded directly from CIDCM).


Banks: The Cross-National Time-Series Data Archive (CNTS)

Contains international and country facts from 1815 until 1999. These data were compiled under the leadership of Arthur Banks at SUNY-Binghamton. .

World Bank Development Indicators: CD-ROM 2001.

A codebook of the World Bank variables are contained the codebook section



COW: Correlates of War Data, 1816-1997

Version 3.0. We used these data to code for interstate, civil and extra state wars. (Singer and Small 1972; Small and Singer 1982; Sarkees (forthcoming))


We obtained COW capability scores (Singer, Bremer, and Stuckey (1972)) and the components that does into these score, such as military expenditure,  Militarized Interstate Dispute data (Jones, Bremer, and Singer (1996)) , and power status and distances between states (Small and Singer 1982) from EUgene (Bennett, and Stam 2000). The documentation for this program is available in our codebook section.

Human Rights Abuse Data

Poe, Tate and Keith 1999.


Population Migration Data.

Mitchell 1998a,b.




Singer, J. David, and Melvin Small (1972). The Wages of War, 1816-1965: A Statistical Handbook. New York: John Wiley.

Small, Melvin, and J. David Singer (1982). Resort to Arms: International and Civil Wars, 1816-1980. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Sarkees, Meredith Reid (2000). "Correlates of War War Datasets: An Update to 1997", Conflict Management and Peace Science. Vol 18. No 1. Fall p.123-144.

Bennett, D. Scott, and Allan Stam.  2000.  EUGene:  A Conceptual Manual.”  International Interactions 26:179-204.  Website:

Jones, Daniel M., Stuart A. Bremer and J. David Singer 1996. "Militarized Interstate Disputes, 1816-1992: Rationale, Coding Rules, and Empirical Patterns."             Conflict Management and Peace Science 15(2); 163:213.

Singer, J. David, Stuart Bremer, and John Stuckey.  1972.  "Capability Distribution, Uncertainty, and Major Power War, 1820-1965."  in Bruce Russett, ed.           Peace, War and Numbers.  Beverly Hills:  Sage.

Small, Melvin, and J. David Singer.  1982.  Resort to Arms:  International and Civil Wars, 1816-1980.  Beverly Hills:  Sage Publications.


Mitchell, B. R. 1998.  International Historical Statistics: Europe, 1750-1993.  Fourth edition.  New York: Stockbridge Press and London: Macmillan.


Mitchell, B. R.  1998.  International Historical Statistics: Africa, Asia and Oceania, 1750-1993.  Third edition.  New York: Stockbridge Press and London: Macmillan.


Poe, Steven C. and C. Neal Tate. 1994. "Repression of Human Rights to Personal Integrity in the 1980s: A Global Analysis." American Political Science Review. 88:853-900.

Poe, Steven C. and C. Neal Tate and Linda Camp Keith. 1999. "Repression of the Human Right to Personal Integrity Revisited: A Global Crossnational Study Covering the Years 1976-1993," International Studies Quarterly, 1999 43:291-315.



Appendix: Variables

ccode "COW country code";

year “year”;


Leader Data


leader “Leader’s name”

leader_id “Leader identification number: if same leader returns to office then she gets a new number.”;

inday “ day leader enters office”;

inmonth “Month leader enters office;”             

inyear “Year leader enters office”;        

outday “Day leader leaves office”;

outmonth “Month leader leaves office”;

outyear “Year leader leaves office”;

indate “Date entering office (stata internal format)”;

outdate  “Date leaving office (stata internal format)”;

leadgone “Leader leaves office in this observation”;

intime “Either the date the leader enters office or the first day of the year if she was in office in the previous year”;

endtime “Either the date the leader leaves office or if she survives the whole year then 12/31/year”;

time_in_office "total tenure of leader thus far ";

year_in_office "1st, 2nd, 3rd, ... year in office? ";

tenure “tenure in office: (endtime-indate)/365.25”;




Assinations "BANKS: Assinations--political motivated murder or attempt of high level official";

GenStrikes "BANKS: Gneral strikes 1000+workers, more than one employer  ";

Guerilla "BANKS: Guerilla warfare-- aimed at overthrow of regime  ";

GovCrises "BANKS: situation that threatens a downfall of regime (excl. revolt)  ";

Purges "Banks: systematic elimination (jail/kill) within regime or opposition  ";

Riots "Banks: violent demo./clash of 100+ citizens involving physical force";

Revolutions "BANKS: illegal or forced chg. in top gov. elite, or attempt gain independence";

AntiGovDem   "BANKS: Peaceful public gathering 100+ people to express discontent  ";

ConflictIndex   "BANKS: 24*assinations+43GenStrike+46Guerilla+48GovCri+86Purges+102Riots+148Rev+200antigovdem";

RegisteredVoters  "BANKS: Registered Voters  ";

RegimeType "BANKS: Regime type: 1=civilian,2=military-civilian,3=military,4=other";

Coups  "BANKS: number of Coup d'Etat    ";

MajConstChg "BANKS: Major Constitutional changes: number";

HeadofState   "BANKS: 1=monarch,2=president,3=military,4=other";

Premier  "BANKS: 1=executive is premierial, 2 =formal executive is non-premerial";

Legselec "BANKS: Legislative Selection. 0=none,1=nonelective,2=elective ";

NatGovRevenue  "BANKS: National Gov. Revenue US$ ";

NatGovExpend "BANKS: National Gov. Expenditure US$ ";

gen defenseovertotal=real(s05f7)  ;

defenseovertotal "BANKS: defenese expenditure divided by total expenditure ";



democ    “Polity4: institutionalized democracy score”

autoc “Polity4: institutionalized autocracy score”

polity “Polity4: combined polity score”

polity2  “Polity4: revised polity score”

durable “Polity4: regime durability”

xrreg “Polity4: regulation of executive recruitment”

xrcomp   “Polity4: competitiveness of executive recruitment”

xropen   “Polity4: openness of executive recruitment”

xconst “Polity4: executive constraints”

parreg  “Polity4: regulation of participation”

parcomp “Polity4: competitiveness of participation”

exrec “Polity4: concept: executive recruitment”

exconst “Polity4: concept: executive constraints”

polcomp  “Polity4: concept: political competition”

prior “Polity4: transition: prior polity code”

eyear   “Polity4: transition: polity end year”

edate “Polity4: transition: polity end date”

eprec  “Polity4: end date precision”

interim “Polity4:  transition: interim polity code”

byear  “Polity4: transition: polity begin year”

bdate “Polity4: transition: polity begin date”

bprec “Polity4: begin date precision”

post “Polity4: transition: post polity code”

change “Polity4: transition: change in polity”

d3  “Polity4: 3d conversion”

sf  “Polity4: collapse of central authority”

regtrans  “Polity4: transition: nature of regime change”


World Bank Development Indicators 2001

Birthrate "WBDI: Birth rate, crude (per 1,000 people)";

GrossDomInvest " WBDI: Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP)";

/* Gross fixed capital formation (gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals,

private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. For more information, see WDI table 4.9.*/

CurRevenue " WBDI: Current revenue, excluding grants (% of GDP)";

CapitalExpend_tot " WBDI: Capital expenditure (% of total expenditure)";

EducExpend " WBDI: Genuine savings: education expenditure (% of GDP)";

HealthExpend " WBDI: Health expenditure, total (% of GDP)";

newspaper " WBDI: Daily newspapers (per 1,000 people)";

Deathrate " WBDI: Death rate, crude (per 1,000 people)";

Expenditure " WBDI: Expenditure, total (% of GDP)";

ConsumptionSpending " WBDI: Final consumption expenditure, etc. (% of GDP)";

CapitalExpend " WBDI: Capital Expenditure (% of GDP)";

Foreign_Finnace " WBDI: Financing from abroad (% of GDP)";

FDI " WBDI: Foreign direct investment, net inflows (% of GDP)";

Saving_dom " WBDI: Genuine domestic savings (% of GDP)";

Capital_formation " WBDI: Gross capital formation (% of GDP)";

GrossDomSaving " WBDI: Gross domestic savings (% of GDP)";

GrossNatSaving " WBDI: Gross national savings, including NCTR (% of GDP)";

HealthExpPPP " WBDI: Health expenditure per capita, PPP (current international $)";

HealthEXP “WBDI: Health expenditure, total (% of GDP)";

Beds " WBDI: Hospital beds (per 1,000 people)";

Illiteracy " WBDI: Illiteracy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)";

ImmuneDPT " WBDI: Immunization, DPT (% of children under 12 months)";

ImmuneMEASLES " WBDI: Immunization, measles (% of children under 12 months)";

Labor_PrimEd " WBDI: Labor force with primary education (% of total)";

LifeExp " WBDI: Life expectancy at birth, total (years)";

LowBirth " WBDI: Low-birthweight babies (% of births)";

InfMort " WBDI: Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)";

MilExGNI " WBDI: Military expenditure (% of GNI)";

MilEx " WBDI: Military expenditure (% of central government expenditure)";

MilPerson " WBDI: Military personnel (% of total labor force)";

Doctors " WBDI: Physicians (per 1,000 people)";

FemSec " WBDI: Secondary education, pupils (% female)";

Aid_expend " WBDI: Aid (% of central government expenditures)";

Aid_pcUS " WBDI: Aid per capita (current US$)" ;  

WB_gdp95 " WBDI: GDP (constant 1995 US$)" ;  

WB_gdp_curUS " WBDI: GDP (current US$)" ;  

WB_growth " WBDI: GDP growth (annual %)" ;  

WB_gdppc_constUS95 " WBDI: GDP per capita (constant 1995 US$)" ;  

WB_pop " WBDI: Population, total" ;  

total_aid " WBDI: WB_population* Aid_pcUS (i.e current US$)";

aid_cap_constUS " WBDI: Aid per capita (const US$)";

aid_gdp " WBDI: Foreign aid over GDP ";



PR “Freedom House: Political Rights Index”;

CL “Freedom House: Civil Liberties Index”;




INST "ACLP: Classification of regimes: 0=dictator; 1=parliamentary demo: 2=mixed demo:3=Presidential demo";

AGEA "ACLP: Age of regime by AUT";

AGEI "ACLP: Age of regime by INST";

AUT "ACLP: Classification of regimes: 0=demo: 1=bureaucracy: 2=autocracy";

BRITCOL "ACLP:Former British Colony ";

CATH "ACLP: %age Catholics in population ";

COMEX  "ACLP: Primiary Commodity exporters =1 ";

EDTG "ACLP: Growth rate in EDT ";

EDT "ACLP: Cummulative years of education for average member of work force (Bhalla 1994) ";

ELF60 "ACLP: ethnolinguistic fractionization";

GINI "ACLP: GINI index of inequality";

GXPDEDUC "ACLP: Central government expenditure on education as as share of GDP (both at factor cost, current national currency). [WB1994";

GXPDHLTH "ACLP: Central government expenditure on health as a share of GDP (both at factor cost, current national currency). [WB 1994";

GXPDSSEC "ACLP: Central government expenditure on social security and welfare as a share of GDP (both at factor cost, current national currency) [WB 1994";

GXPKTOTL "ACLP: Central government total capital expenditure as a share of GDP (both at factor cost, current national currency) [WB 1994";

ETHNIC "ACLP: Percentage of population of the largest ETHNIC group, measured in the year for which data were available (roughly 1976-1985). [The Economist 1988 and Vanhanen 1992].";

INEQ "ACLP: Ratio of income shares of the top to the bottom quintiles of income recipients. [Deininger and Squire 1996].";

LEGSELEC "ACLP: Legislative selection. As in BANKS but undated and slightly modofied ";

MOSLEM "ACLP: Percentage of Moslems in the population. [LPS 1993/94].";

OIL "ACLP: Dummy variable coded 1 if the average ratio of fuel exports to total exports in 1984-86 exceeded 50%, 0 otherwise. [International Monetary Fund (1994b)].";

PROT "ACLP: Percentage of Protestants in the populaton [LPS 1993/94].";

PRIVCON "ACLP: Private Consumption ";

REGION "ACLP: Region of the world, coded 1 if Latin America and Caribbean; 2 if Middle East; 3 if Eastern Europe; 4 if Africa; 5 if Southern Asia; 6 if Eastern Asia; 7 if OECD. [World Bank 1990].";

REGION2 "ACLP: Region of the world, coded 1 if Sub-Saharan Africa; 2 if South Asia; 3 if East Asia; 4 if South East Asia; 5 if Pacific Islands/Oceania; 6 if Middle East/North Africa; 7 if Latin America; 8 if Caribbean and non-Iberic America; 9 if Eastern Europe/Soviet Union; 10 if Industrial Countries.";

RELIGION "ACLP: Percentage of population of the largest religious group, measured in the year for which data were available (roughly 1976-1985). [The Economist 1988 and Vanhanen 1992]";

RIOTS "ACLP: Number of violent demonstrations or clashes of more than 100 citizens involving the use of physical force. [Banks 1996].";

STRIKES "ACLP: Number of strikes of 1,000 or more industrial or service workers that involves more than one employer and that is aimed at national government policies or authority. [Banks 1996].";

UNSTABLE "ACLP: Dummy variable coded 1 for all the years in a country that experienced at least one regime transition (as defined by REG) between 1950 and 1990.";

WAR "Dummy variable coded 1 when there is a war of any type (international or civil) on the territory of a country, 0 otherwise. [Singer and Small 1994";

TAXGDP "Cheibub: Tax revenue / GDP";

TAXGNP "Cheibub: Tax Revenue /GNP";

TREV "Cheibub: Total Revenue/GDP";

INCOMEY "Cheibub: Income Tax/GDP";

INCOMET "Cheibub: Income tax/tax revenue ";

DIRT "Cheibub: Direct Tax/TAX revenue";

INDIRT "Cheibub: Indirect TAX/ TAX revenue ";


Penn World Tables

eda "Effective Development Assistance (=EDA GQ +grants -TA-B Debt): Craig Burnside, David Dollar: Aid Dataset";

pop "population: PWT";

rgdpch "Real GDP per capita in constant dollars (Chain Index) (expressed in international prices, base 1985.) : PWT";

rgdpl "Real GDP per capita (Laspeyres index) (1985 intl. prices) : PWT";

c  " Real Consumption share of GDP [%] (1985 intl. prices) : PWT";

i " Real Investment share of GDP [%] (1985 intl. prices): PWT";

g " Real Government share of GDP [%] (1985 intl. prices): PWT";

rgdptt  "Real GDP per capita in constant dollars adjusted for changes in terms of trade (1985 international prices for domestic absorption and current prices for exports and imports.) : PWT";

cgdp " Real GDP per capita (current intl. prices): PWT";

y  "CGDP relative to U.S. [%] (U.S.=100, current intl. prices) : PWT";

cc " Real Consumption share of GDP [%] (current intl. prices) : PWT";

ci " Real Investment share of GDP [%] (current intl. prices): PWT";

cg "Real Government share of GDP [%] (current intl. prices) : PWT";

p "Price level GDP [%] (PPP GDP/ U.S. dollar exchange rate) : PWT";

pc " Price level Consumption [%] ([PPP of C]/XR): PWT";

pi "Price level Investment [%] ([PPP of I]/XR) : PWT";

pg "Price level Government [%] ([PPP of G]/XR) : PWT";

xr "Exchange Rate with U.S. dollar : PWT";

rgdpea "Real GDP per Equivalent Adult (1985 intl. prices): PWT";

rgdpw "Real GDP per Worker (1985 intl. prices) : PWT";

kapw  "Non-residential Capital Stock per Worker (1985 intl. prices) : PWT";

kdur  "Producer Durables (% of KAPW) (1985 intl. prices) : PWT";

knres " Nonresidential construction (% of KAPW) (1985 intl. prices) : PWT";

kother " Other Construction (% of KAPW) (1985 intl. prices): PWT";

kres "Residential construction (% of KAPW) (1985 intl. prices) : PWT";

ktranp "Transportation Equipment (% of KAPW) (1985 intl. prices) : PWT";

open "Openness (Exports+Imports)/Nominal GDP : PWT";

rgnp "Real Gross National Product (% of CGDP) : PWT";

ipri " Gross Domestic Private Investment (% of Gross Domestic Investment in current intl.prices) : PWT";

stliv " Standard of Living Index (Consumption plus government consumption minus military expenditure, % of GDP) : PWT";





warno "COW: Interstate War Number";

is_war_start "COW: Does an interstate war start this year? (1/0)";

duration "COW: Length of interstate war participation in days";

deaths "COW: Number of battle related deaths sustained by participant's armed forces in interstate war";

outcome "COW: Interstate War outcome for participant (1 = on winning side, 2 = on losing side, 3 = on side A of a tie, 4 = on side B of a tie, 5 = on side A of ongoing war, 6 = on side B of ongoing war)";

initiate "COW: Interstate, Did state initiate war? (0 = no, 1 = yes)";

sysstat "COW: System membership status of state (1 = neither central sub-system member nor major power, 2 = central sub-system member only [only relevant 1816 through 1919], 3 = central sub-system member & a major power [only relevant 1816 through 1919], 4 = major power only)";

IS_WAR "COW: Interstate War (1/0)";

number_of_ISwars "COW: Number of Interstate Wars that nation is engaged during year ";

biggestISwar "COW: Dummy for the largest interstate war ongoing in that year (by deaths): in nation year analyses use to select only the largest war";

warnoEX "COW: War Number: Extra state war";

EX_war_start "COW: Does an extrastate war start this year? (1/0)";

EXduration "COW: Length of EX war participation in days: ";

EXdeaths "COW: Number of battle related deaths sustained by participant's armed forces in war";

EXintside "COW extrastate: On which side did participant intervene? (0 = NA/state is primary actor in war, 1 = on side of state; 2 = on side of colony/non-state, 3 = on neither side)";

EXinitiate "COW extrastate:Did state initiate war? (0 = no, 1 = yes)";

EX_WAR "COW: Extrastate War (1/0)";

number_of_EXwars "COW: Number of Extrastate Wars that nation is engaged during year ";
biggestEXwar "COW: Dummy for the largest extrastate war ongoing in that year (by deaths): in nation year analyses use to select only the largest war";

warnoCL "COW: Civil War Number";

CL_war_start "COW: Does a civil war start this year? (1/0)";

CLduration "COW: Length of CIVIL war participation in days: ";

CLdeaths "COW: Number of civil war battle related deaths sustained by participant's armed forces in war";

CLintside "COW: On which side did participant intervene? (0 = NA/state is primary actor in war, 1 = on side of state; 2 = on side of colony/non-state, 3 = on neither side)";

CLinitiate "COW civil war: Did state initiate war? (0 = no, 1 = yes)";

CL_WAR "CIVIL War (1/0)";

number_of_CLwars "COW: Number of CIVIL Wars that nation is engaged during year ";

biggestCLwar "COW: Dummy for the largest CIVIL war ongoing in that year (by deaths): in nation year analyses use to select only the largest war";

cap "COW: capabilities";

milper "COW: military personnel";

milex "COW: military expenditure";

energy "COW: energy consumption";

irst "COW: Iron and Steel production";

majpow  "COW: Major Power?";


Human Rights Abuses Data (Poe et. Al. 1999)

ai “Amnesty international human rights score (1 to 5 scale)

sd “State Department human rights score (1 to 5 scale)

ainew “Amnesty international scale with missing values filled with sd data”

sdnew “State department data with missing values filled by ai data”


Population Migration Data (Mitchell 1998)

immig "Immigration";

emig "emigration";




finittrm "Is there a finite term in office? (1 if yes, O if no): Phil Keefer:World Bank data set on political institutions";

yrcurnt "Years left in current term: Phil Keefer:World Bank data set on political institutions";

military "Is Chief Executive a military officer?: Phil Keefer:World Bank data set on political institutions";

auton "Federalism? Autonomy regions: Phil Keefer:World Bank data set on political institutions";

strikes "strikes: Easterley";

nspolpr "political protests:Easterley";

agovdem "Anti-government demonstrations: Any peaceful public gathering of at least 100 people for the primary purpose of displaying or voicing their opposition to government policies or authority, excluding demonstrations of a distinctly anti-foreign nature.:Easterley&Levine";

govtcris " Major Government Crises: Any rapidly developing situation that threatens to bring the downfall of the present regine - excluding situations of revolt aimed at such overthrow.:Easterley&levine";

corrupti80_89 "corruption:Easterley&levine";

purges " Purges: Any systematic elimination by jailing or execution of political opposition within the ranks of the regime or the opposition.:Easterley&levine";

coups " Coups dEtat: The number of extraconstitutional or forced changes in the top government elite and/or its effective control of the nations power structure in a given year. Unsuccessful coups are not counted.:Easterley&levine";

riots "Any violent demonstration or clash of more than 100 citizens involving the use of physical force.:Easterley&levine";

constchg "Major Constitutional Changes: The number of basic alternations in a states constitutional structure, the extreme case being the adoption of a new constitution that significantly alters the prerogatives of the various branches of government.:Easterley&levine";

cabchg "Major Cabinet Changes: The number of times in a year that a new premier is named and/or 50% of the cabinet posts are occupied by new ministers.:Easterley&levine";

genocide "Dummy =1 for countries with genocidal incident involving political victims or mixed communal and political victims.:Easterley&levine";



Other Sources

esolow "Solow productivity residual=ZPGDP-0.4*ZKAP-0.6*ZLAB: Fischer J of Monetary Econ 1993";

bhkavg "average Barro-Lee human capital stock (average years of educational attainment of the labor force: Fischer J of Monetary Econ 1993";

exchprem "log (1+BLACK), where BLACK is the average black market exchange rate premium from WDR: Fischer J of Monetary Econ 1993";




BdM2S2 Constructions

cowreg "COW region code";

regyr "region-year dummy";

demaut "Polity: (democracy score - autocracy score +10)/20";

lpop "log of population: Penn World Tables";

lpop_WB "log of population (World Bank)";

S "Selectorate size: Legselec/2  Polity";

W  " Winning Coalition size"; gen W=0; replace W=W+1 if (xrcomp>=2);replace W=W+1 if (xropen>2);replace W=W+1 if parcomp==5;

gen W_extend = W; replace W=W + 1 if (RegimeType~=. & RegimeType~=2 & RegimeType~=3);replace W=W/4   Polity;

W_mod "Alternative coding for Winning Coalition Size";

gen W_mod=1; replace W_mod=W_mod+1 if (xrcomp>=2);replace W_mod=W_mod+1 if (xropen>2);replace W_mod=W_mod+1 if parcomp==5;replace W_mod=W_mod-1 if (xrreg==1 |xrreg==2);replace W_mod=W_mod/4;

Parl_Pres “Institutional Variable: 0 if Demaut<1, takes vale of ACLP’s INST variable otherwise”

w2 "Winning Coalition (W) squared";

demaut2 "Democracy measure (demaut) squared";

WoverS "W/S: transformed to avoid division by zero: =W/(log((s+1)*10)/3)";

dbigw "demaut is bigger than W"

dw30 "Change in W: W minus W at t-3";

lagW "lagged W";

lagW2 "lagged W squared";

dwos30 "change in WoverS: today versus three years earlier";

grow “PWT:(rgdpc-L.rgdpc)/L.rgdpc”

LongGR1 “PWT long term growth (five year average): (F2.rgdpc-L2.rgdpc)/L2.rgdpc”

LagGrow “Lagged growth PWT”

lrgdpc "log GDP pc: PWT";

laglrgdpc "lagged log of GDP pc PWT";

lgdpWB "log GDP pc: WBDI 2001";

laglgdpWB "lagged log of GDP pc: WBDI 2001";

VarGrow_ "Variance in growth rate (PWT growth)";

build "noresidential+residential and other construction: WBDI ";

bal_bud "unBalanced Budget: abs((NatGovRevenue- NatGovExpend)/NatGovRevenue)"

Klepto "Kleptocracy? surplus funds not spend by leader"

nexcap "percapita government expenditure in US$"