1. Singular/Plural; Direct/Oblique; Objective, Possessive
(a) तुम may be used to address one or more people, but its verb concord is always plural.
(b) The most common translation equivalent of आप is ‘you', and it may have either singular or plural reference. Note that with respect to verb concord, आप is a third person plural noun.
(c) Possessive forms of the first and second person pronouns are inflected as adjectives: e.g.
|मेरा भाई||my brother|
|तुम्हारी बहनें||your sisters|
|तह किताब मेरि है||this book is mine|
|आपके बेटे कैसे हैं ?||How is your son?|
|उसकी बेटी कैसी हैं ?||How is your daughter?|
2. Common uses of the honorific particle जी are as follows:
|In addressing a person (male or female) to whom one uses आप, जी may be added to the last name: e.g.|
|वाजपेयी जी, आप कैसे हैं ?||How are you, Mr. Vajpeyi?|
|When added to a first name, it denotes a certain familiarity: e.g.|
|कैसी हैं राधा जी ?||How are you, Radha?|
|In referring to persons whom one would address आप, जी precedes last names in this case: e.g.|
|आप समय राम प्रसाद जी मंत्री थे |||At that time, Mr. Ram Prasad was secretary.|
(c) The words हाँ ‘yes' and नहीं ‘no' used alone sometimes seem rather crude.
The forms श्री, श्रमती , and कमारी or सश्री are also used in the same way as the titles Mr., Mrs., and Miss.
|पिता||m, father||ठीक||correct, all right, fine|
|माता, माँ||f, mother||काम||m, work|
|स्कूल||m, school||बैठा||seated, sitting|
|स्कूल में||at school||कैसे||what sort of ?|
|पति||m, husband||आप कैसे हैं ?||How are you?|
|माता-पिता||m. pl., parents||हाँ||yes|
|राजधानी||f, capital||नमस्ते, नमस्कार||‘greeting'|
|मंत्री||m, secretary, minister||हम हैं||we are|
|मैं हूँ||I am||सब||all; everything|
|उस समय||at that time||सब किताबें||all the books|