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Lesson 3

Virtual Hindi

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

1. Singular/Plural; Direct/Oblique; Objective, Possessive

(a) तुम may be used to address one or more people, but its verb concord is always plural.

(b) The most common translation equivalent of आप is ‘you', and it may have either singular or plural reference. Note that with respect to verb concord, आप is a third person plural noun.

(c) Possessive forms of the first and second person pronouns are inflected as adjectives: e.g.

मेरा भाई my brother
तुम्हारी बहनें your sisters
तह किताब मेरि है this book is mine

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HONORIFIC USAGES

1. Plural concord in a sentence can be a mark of honorific reference, but the only nouns used honorifically in plural number are the masculine when in direct case: e.g.
आपके बेटे कैसे हैं ? How is your son?
Compare:  
उसकी बेटी कैसी हैं ? How is your daughter?

2. Common uses of the honorific particle जी are as follows:

(a)

In addressing a person (male or female) to whom one uses आप, जी may be added to the last name: e.g.
वाजपेयी जी, आप कैसे हैं ? How are you, Mr. Vajpeyi?
When added to a first name, it denotes a certain familiarity: e.g.
कैसी हैं राधा जी ? How are you, Radha?

(b)

In referring to persons whom one would address आप, जी precedes last names in this case: e.g.
आप समय राम प्रसाद जी मंत्री थे | At that time, Mr. Ram Prasad was secretary.

(c) The words हाँ ‘yes' and नहीं ‘no' used alone sometimes seem rather crude.

The forms श्री, श्रमती , and कमारी or सश्री are also used in the same way as the titles Mr., Mrs., and Miss.

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VOCABULARY

पिता m, father ठीक correct, all right, fine
माता, माँ f, mother काम m, work
स्कूल m, school बैठा seated, sitting
स्कूल में at school कैसे what sort of ?
पति m, husband आप कैसे हैं ? How are you?
पत्नी f, wife अभी now
माता-‍पिता m. pl., parents हाँ yes
भारत m, India नहीं no
राजधानी f, capital नमस्ते, नमस्कार ‘greeting'
मंत्री m, secretary, minister हम हैं we are
मैं हूँ I am सब all; everything
उस समय at that time सब किताबें all the books

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