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Lesson 2

Virtual Hindi

ADJECTIVES

Adjectives whose direct singular masculine form ends in – आ show agreement with nouns in gender, number, and case:

अच्छा ‘good' agrees with masculine, singular, direct nouns
अच्छे agrees with masculine singular oblique nouns and plural nouns, direct or oblique.
अच्छी agrees with feminine nouns regardless of number or case.

Adjectives ending in – आँ follow the pattern of अच्छा with endings nasalized, e.g . बायाँ ‘left' (hand); and most ordinal numerals.

Other adjectives are invariable (except for a few loanwords, and some adjectival use of pronouns).

अच्छा लड़का a good boy
बड़े मकान में in a big house
बड़ी दुकानों में in the big shops
दो लाल किताबें two red books

(a) Adjectives are used predicatively as well as attributively (i.e. following as well as preceding nouns which they qualify): e.g.

दीवार ऊँची हैं | The wall is high.
किताबें लाल हैं | The books are red.

(b) A few adjectives in – आ are invariable: some showing final – इया, e.g. बढ़िया ‘good, nice'; some Persian and Arabic loanwords, e.g. ज़िंदा ‘alive', मादा ‘female'; also the numeral सवा.

(c)

An adjective used predicatively with two or more nouns of pronouns of different genders, and not referring to persons, agrees with the nearest: e.g.
कागज़ और पेंसिलें सस्ती हैं | Paper and pencils are cheap.
If the nouns or pronouns refer to persons the adjective usually take masculine plural form: e.g.
मैं और सीता बूढ़े हैं | Sita and I are old.
But a composite pronoun subject, e.g. दोनों ‘both', is very often added in these cases to minimize the awkward of the concord: e.g.
मैं और सीता दोनों बुढ़े हैं | Sita and I are both old.

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DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

(a)        

Sg. Dir. यह     this वह      that
  Obl. इस उस
  Object इसे उसे

(b) वह and its plural वे as well as acting as demonstratives, are the normal translation equivalents of the third person pronouns ‘he, she, it, they'.

(c) The singular direct case forms यह, वह are often substituted for ये, वे in both the spoken and written language.

(d) The demonstrative pronouns are also used as demonstrative adjectives, preceding and in concord with nouns: e.g.

यह लड़का this boy
इस कमरे में in this room
उन मेज़ों पर on those tables
उन छोटी मेज़ों पर on those small tables

(e) The object forms are equivalents (preferred by many speakers) of the forms इसको, उसको, इनको, उनको , showing the postposition को. The uses of these forms and other uses of को are discussed in Lesson IX, and elsewhere.

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THE POSTPOSITION का

This postposition indicates possession; it agrees in the same way as an adjective in – आ with nouns; e.g.

उस स्त्री का बेटा that woman's son
उस स्त्री के बेटे that woman's sons
उस स्त्री के बेटे का मकान that woman's son's house
उस आदमी की बहनों का मकान that man's sisters house
उसका मकान his, her house

Possessive forms and expression can be used predicatively as well as attributively: e.g.

यह मकान उसका है | This house is his, hers.
यह मकान उस स्त्री का है | This house belongs to that woman.

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VOCABULARY

दीवार f, wall घर m, house, home
कागज़ m, paper घर पर at home
पेंसिल f, pencil दरवाज़ा m, door
स्त्री f, woman दरवाज़ा पर at the door
बेटा m, son बच्चा m, child; baby
बेटी f, daughter किताब f, book
भाई m, brother सदूंक m, box
छोटा भाई younger brother देश m, country
बहन f, sister शहर m, city, town
छोटी बहन younger sister गाँव m, village
सीता Sita (a girl's name) साफ़ clean
क्लास f,m, class (school); grade काला black
किला m, fort सफ़ेद white
दिल्ली f, Delhi सुन्दर beautiful
इमारत f, building चार four
राजा m, rajah पाँच five
महल m, palace पाँचवाँ fifth
कपड़ा m, cloth; pl., clothes छह, छः, छै six
मंदिर m, temple लाल red
छोटा small ऊँचा high
बड़ा large बढ़िया good, nice
बहुत adj.& adv.,much,many;very सस्ता cheap
मैला dirty बूढ़ा old; m, old man
खड़ा standing मैं I

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