Italians are renowned for being a warm and welcoming people. You'll find that the majority of Florentines, especially shop keepers and restaurant workers have some English language ability and it is not hard to navigate the city with limited Italian language skills. While they may not expect visitors to speak Italian, locals will warm to you quickly if you try to engage them in their own tongue, and if you aren't shy about fumbling your way through a few phrases in Italian they will be eager to help you hone your skills.
When out and about you may notice a few unwritten rules of etiquette that come in handy to any visitor to Italy. Greetings, even when meeting someone for the first time, are warm and friendly. Though smoking has recently been prohibited in bars, it is still an acceptable habit and it is not considered offensive to non-smokers in the same way that it might be in the United States.
When dining out, coperto, or a cover charge, is customarily added to the check. Tipping a specific percentage above the final bill is not the norm, though it is always a considered a polite gesture to round the check up and leave a few extra euros after the meal.
Something that is important to know about Italy is that despite their reputation for being open and friendly, Italians are a very political people. Italy has had over 60 types of governments since World War II. The political environment is both fragile and steeped in controversy. In a country such as this, the Italian people find staying abreast of their leaders and the decisions they make extremely important. This interest is fueled by years of corruption and unrest. You are likely to learn a lot about current politics once you arrive, though there is nothing lost in doing a little research beforehand.
These are some useful phrases for getting around the city!
Mi scusi - Excuse me
Buongiorno - Good day
Dov'è il bagno? - Where is the bathroom?
Grazie - Thank you
Non parlo l'italiano I don't speak Italian