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The Flipped Class Demystified

Instructor-Centered Pedagogy

In an instructor-center pedagogy, instructors use in-class time to introduce and demonstrate content to students; to transmit information, definitions, and explanations; and, over time, to review content with students. This is typically students’ initial exposure to the content. Week after week, instructors “give,” and students “are given,” listening as best they can, taking individual notes, asking questions along the way, in order to absorb the content. The predominant dynamic of the teacher-centered classroom is “content as a forward-moving target.” During out-of-class time students are expected to work with their notes, related readings and other materials to memorize, assimilate, apply, and prepare to “give back” what instructors have transmitted, both in class recitation and in work that will be evaluated eventually by instructors.

Elements in the Instructor-Centered Pedagogy

Sequence of Elements in the Instructor-Centered Pedagogy


Student-Centered Pedagogy

image of instructor as guide on side as students work

A student-centered pedagogy is about the desire to create a more active learning environment both inside and outside the classroom. In this model, students engage in learning that goes beyond the assimilation of given information to the application of skills and construction of knowledge. Prior to class, students familiarize themselves with new content at their own pace, compare and contrast it with any prior knowledge, construct new understandings, and prepare for class by formulating and answering critical thinking or problem solving questions. Students do this work both individually and collaboratively with peers.

During in-class time, instructors guide students to articulate their prior knowledge and demonstrate new understandings of the content; to inquire, debate, evaluate, share, test, and think critically about the content; and to apply the content to solve problems. The predominant dynamic of the student-centered classroom is “interaction with content with instructors and peers” or “active learning.” Often the learning does not end with the in-class activity, but continues with more individual or collaborative practice and creation of student material outside the classroom and throughout the course. Students receive immediate feedback on work based on their efforts so that they remain attuned to their progress and motivated to iterate and improve. Assessment and evaluation of student work are based on these efforts.

chart of Student-Centered Pedagogy

Sequence of elements in the student-centered pedagogy


Flipped Classroom Pedagogy

A flipped class inverts the sequence of presenting instructional material and application so that students come prepared to class to interact with a classroom of peers and an instructor as they share, test, apply, and integrate the material with their prior knowledge. Since the flipped classroom follows the same sequence as a student-centered model, we will for the remainder of this article refer to it as the “flipped classroom” and provide a guide on how to do it.

Below is a general example comparing both approaches. Note there are other ways to design student-centered approaches that reflect the type of content, topic, and student needs.

table comparing 2 approaches


Technology & Media Integrated in the Flipped Classroom

The flipped classroom has also become closely associated with significant uses of media and technology to support the blend of in-class and out-of-class experiences. For more about how to integrate media and technology with the flipped model, see the next section.


Technology & Media Integrated in the Flipped Classroom 


Technology & Media Integrated in the Flipped Classroom 

Related Resources

Bergmann, J. & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. Washington, DC: International Society for Technology in Education.

Berrett, D. (2012, February 19). How flipping the classroom can improve the traditional lecture. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Hake, R.R. (1998). Interactive engagement vs. traditional methods: A six- thousand student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses. American Journal of Physics, 66(1): 64–74.

Hibbert, Melanie (2014, April 7) What makes Online Instructional Video Compelling. EDUCAUSE Review

Lage MJ, Platt GJ, and Treglia M (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. The Journal of Economic Education, 31: 30-43.

Mazur E (2009). Farewell, Lecture? Science 323: 50-51.

Mazur E (2013). The flipped classroom will redefine the role of educators. Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

Zappe, S., Leicht, R., Messner, J., Litzinger, T., & Lee, H. W. (2009). Flipping the Classroom to Explore Active Learning in a Large Undergraduate Course. In Proceedings, American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exhibition. 

Center for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning Network: The Flipped Classroom FAQ.

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