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201317fromthePolveriniarticle6narrowlydefinesresearchinthetermsofbasicbiologyoforalstructureandthepathol-ogyoforal-facialdisease.Thisleavesoutthemanyquestionsinherentinbeingaprofessionthatisinservicetothepub-lic.Scholarlyresearchinalltheseareaspublichealthsociologyhealthservicesbioethicsandeconomicsisimportanttothesocietalroledentistryplays.Inmanyoftheestablisheddentalschoolsthistypeofscholarlyactivityiseitherself-fundedbyschoolsanduniversitiesorfundedbyfoundations.Newschoolsaswellasestablishedschoolscancreateascholarlyenvironmentwithapublicserv-iceorsocietalmissioninmind.Schoolsthatemphasizecommunityserviceoftenareengagedwithsuchre-searchandcanjustasoftenbeinCarnegieResearch-IntensiveUniversitiesandoracademicmedicalcentersasonosteopathicmedicalcampuses.Apre-vailingenvironmentcongenialtointellec-tualactivitycanonlygoonaccordingtoBertolamifromresearchaboutdis-coveringnewtreatmentscuresanddiag-nosticmethodsnotnecessarilyaboutteachingstudents.Italicsaremine.Thisisanarrowviewofscholarshipandim-pliesthatpedagogyisnotabletocreateascholarlyenvironment.HoweverBoyerinScholarshipReconsideredfurtherrec-ognizesscholarshipofteachingwhichcanbeseeninmanyrespectedliberalartscollegesanduniversities.Thisalsoap-pliestodentaleducation.Researchuniversitiesarebeginningtorecognizetheimportanceofteachingintheirtenuredecisions.BoyerfurthernotedthatWhendefinedasscholarshiphoweverteachingbotheducatesanden-ticesfuturescholars.IndeedasAristotlesaidTeachingisthehighestformofun-derstanding.theAccediaionPocessBenchmakingandrankingsAccreditationBertolamisessayispessimisticaboutthefutureofdentaleducationbasedonwhathecallsthearrivalofatwo-tiersys-temofschoolsengenderedbytheopen-ingofnewschoolsassociatedwithosteopathicmedicine.Becauseitappearsthattheseschoolsemphasizecommunityserviceintheirmissionitisin-ferredthattheywillbringdowntheentireprofes-sionmakingitmorevocationthanlearned.Howeverthatisnotnecessarilytrueasamissionthatemphasizescommunityservicedoesnottranslateintoaschoolwithalackofscholarshipasdiscussedabove.Therehavealwaysbeendifferenttypesofdentalschoolssomemoreresearch-orientedthanothersjustastherearedif-ferenttypesofmedicalschoolsandlawschools.Thisdoesnotmeanthatwehaveatwo-tiersystemofdentaleducationofmedicaleducationoroflawschools.IndentistryalloftheschoolsadheretoasetofstandardssetupbytheAmericanDentalAssociationsCommissiononDentalAccreditationCODA.10AccordingtoBertolamimeetingCODAstandardsisnotsufficienttodif-ferentiateschoolsphilosophiescurricu-lumandoutcomes.Hesuggeststhatarankingsystemisneededtoinformthepublicandapplicantsandtodifferentiatebetweentheschoolsthatheinfersarepartofthetwo-tiersystem.Mycon-tentionisthatnorankingsystemwillprotectthepublicfromunsavorypracti-tionersanymorethandothecurrentli-censingregulationsofthestatesandtheCODAaccreditationprocess.Similarlynorankingsystemcanbedevisedthatisbetterthanthealreadyextensiveinfor-mationavailabletoinformstudentsofaschoolsphilosophyeducationalap-proachandoutcomes.Letsfirstbrieflyexaminetheaccreditationsystemsabilitytoassurethatthereisonlyonetierforalldentalschoolsthoseworthyofbeingaccreditedandthenlookatbenchmarkingandrankingsys-tems.CODAexam-inessixcriticalstandardsfordentalschoolsinstitutionalef-fectivenessedu-cationalprogramfacultyandstaffeducationalsupportservicespatientcareservicesandresearchprogram.Eachstandardhasasetofsubstandardswhichhavebeenrevisedconsistentwithestablishedtrendsindentaleducationandwithnationalrequirementsforac-creditedinstitutions.Accreditingteamsaredrawnfromknowledgeablefacultyandschoolsprepareaself-studyassess-mentinrelationtothestandards.Thestandardsareconstantlyreviewedup-gradedandtomymindrepresentwhatacontemporarydentalschoolshouldoffertostudents.Newschoolsaregrantedinitialaccreditationindicatingthatthedevelopingeducationprogramhasthepotentialformeetingthestan-dardsandthisstatusisgrantedafteroneormoresitevisitstotheschoolanduntiltheschoolisfullyoperational.Itshouldbenotedthatthenewschoolsarebeingledbydeansandfacultyrecruitedfromexistingschools.ItisbeyonddisputethatthefacultyisMycontentionisthatnorankingsystemwillprotectthepublicfromunsavorypractitionersanymorethandothecurrentlicensingregulationsofthestatesandtheCODAaccreditationprocess.