Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8
Page 9
Page 10
Page 11
Page 12
Page 13
Page 14
Page 15
Page 16
Page 17
Page 18
Page 19
Page 20
Page 21
Page 22
fordentaleducationintheUnitedStatesandemphasizingtheneedforfull-timefacultywhoaredevotedtopedagogyforincludingaresearchagendaindentalschoolsandforrequiringtwoyearsofprerequisitecollege-levelcourseworkforentry.RegardingthelatterGiesunder-stoodthataliberaleducationguardsagainsttherelativelynarrowinginflu-encesofaprofessionaltraining.andthatsuchpreparationfordentalschoolawakensandstimulatescuriosityandthespiritofenquiryandexpandsviewsandimprovesjudgment.WhiletheGiesReportwasveryclearindeclaringthetypeofprofessionaleducationrequiredforthepracticeofdentistrytherehasbeenalong-standingdebateabouttheemphasisonthebasicbiomedicalsciencecoursesandthetech-nicalclinicaltrainingneededtoeducatecompetentpractitioners.Forexamplein1941ORourkeandMiner3puttheargumentasfollowsAcommonaimofdentaleducationhasbeenthatofprovid-ingopportunitiesforthedevelopmentofskill.Thetraditionalbutfallaciousconceptofskillassomethingalmosten-tirelymanualiscommon.Motoractiv-itiesmustbeincidentalhowevertointellectualeffortifthedangersofrule-of-thumbmethodsandempiricismaretobeavoided.Inmorerecenttimesthe1995Insti-tuteofMedicineIOMReportDentalEducationattheCrossroadsChallengesandChangeagaindiscussedtheprosandconsofdentistryasamedicalspecialty.Whilethereportconcludedthatsuchadesignationwasnotpossibleforavarietyofpracticalreasonsiturgeddentistrytomoveclosertomedicinesothatprac-titionerswillbecomebetterpreparedtoworkaspartofahealthcareteaminamoreintegratedhealthcaresystem.Iturgedcurriculumreformcloserintegra-tionbetweenmedicalanddentaleduca-tionandayearofpost-graduateeducationforallgraduateswithanem-phasisongeneraldentistry.Thereportnotedthattoomanydentalschoolsanddentalfacultyareminimallyinvolvedinresearchandscholarshipandurgedschoolstoformulateaprogramoffac-ultyresearchandscholarlyactivitythatmeetsorexceedstheexpectationsoftheiruniversities.4The1995IOMReportalsonotedthehighdegreeofvariabilityincurriculumemphasisbasedoncoursehoursamongdentalschoolsasituationthatcontinuestoday.Whilethereisconsensusonthemajorblocksofsubjectmattere.g.basicsciencesclinicalsciencesandso-cialsciencesthereisnoconsensusontheemphasisamongthedifferentblockstobestudiedwiththeresultthatdentalschoolstraditionallyhavehadwidelati-tudeinhowmuchtimetheydevotetosubjectmatter.Infactin200809theADACurriculumSurveyshowedthattherangeoftotalhoursvar-iedfrom3531to6954.Therewasalsogreatvariationincurriculumtimeforeachofthemajorblocksofsubjectmat-terspecificallybasicbiomedicalsciencespreclinicalscienceandclinicalsciences.Forexamplethevariationamongschoolsinbiomedicalsciencescoursehoursisbetween452and1455hours.TheschoolswiththefewestreportedbiomedicalscienceshoursUni-versityofCaliforniaSanFranciscoandthehighestnumberofhoursHarvardUniversityarebothhighlyrespectedschools.5BertolamiquotesfromDr.PeterPolverinideanoftheUniversityofMichiganSchoolofDentistryandhostofaninvitation-onlyconferenceinAnnArborinstatingthatforthefirsttimeinnearlyacenturytheimportanceofthebiomedicalsciencesinthedentalschoolcurriculumisbeingchallengedbythisnewdirectionindentaleduca-tion.6Infactwidelatitudeamongschoolsontheemphasisofthebiomed-icalscienceshasalwaysexisted.Interest-inglyofthethreenewschoolslistedinthe200809AmericanDentalEducationsurveyofdentaleducationonereportsover1000hoursofbiomedicalsciencesinstructionA.T.Still-Arizonaandtworeport505and546hoursofinstruction201315