Tashfeen Tahir


December 14, 2006


Science and Religion


“From a drop of water a mathematician could predict an Atlantic or a Niagara ”



“We can no longer afford the stalemate of past centuries between theology and science, for this leaves nature Godless and religion worldless.”


-Excerpt from the mission statement of the Center for Theology and Natural Science



“Our words are dead until we give them life with out blood.”


-Sayd Qutb


Historically, religion and science have always been viewed as two completely different fields of study. Religion, based on faith and an analytical, interpretative way of thinking whereas science is based upon observation, experimentation, and the “if I can feel it then its real” mentality. However, unlike previous centuries, the current technology allows scientists to view the particles that make up our world and study them on a highly advanced level. The ramifications of this for religion, and science, could be tremendous. In these fast paced, electronic, always on the move times people may find religious faith and unity amongst men a little hard to accept when they are being bombarded with scientific facts proclaiming that there is no God nor need for religion. However, the reason why these two schools of thought have always been at each others throats is because they are both, ultimately, searching for the same thing, truth. Science and religion are the two leading disciplines of thought that still look to truth as the essence of the human quest. Both of these areas of study are researching the same thing, our world, environment, and people, they are just going about it in drastically different ways. What needs to happen is a synthesis or balancing out of religion and science, because without it the true nature of both religion and science will be lost and we will be farther than ever from the truth.

Balancing is the rule of thumb for our environment. Everything created in nature is so exceptionally beautiful because of its innate perfection and balance. The high and low tide of the sea, the cycle of new birth and death, even the ability of every living organism to exist is imbued with a natural balance which allows the continuation of everything in our world. It is when this natural balance is disrupted that problems arise. Humans are a part of this earth, and as such are dependant upon this same cycle of balance and continuation. The differentiating factor of being able to rationalize thought and learn, distinguishes humans from animals, but does not exclude them from the laws of nature. This is because although expansion of knowledge is admirable, religion gives worldwide reassurance that there is purpose and causal effect. Religion is more concerned with the why, whereas science is more an examination of the how. Therefore, in order for any human to maintain sanity, there must be a balance between their spirit and their mind. This rationalization allows us to conclude that scientists, without religion to satisfy their spiritual needs, would go insane.

Science itself is defined as, “the observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena.”(American Heritage Dictionary) Essentially, science is the study of life with the scientist as a student. Up until recently, the belief has been universally held that science and religion are intrinsically at odds with one another and that science will disprove faith unless physical evidence is found of the divine. This pattern of thinking is flawed. What scientists and theologians alike need to realize is that science is not disproving but rather affirming faith through the examination of the intrinsically perfect system, or phenomena, that was already present on earth when humans arrived. Take for example, the origin of life. The theory of evolution glides of the problem of how the process of life and subsequent evolution began. Natural selection simply describes the way organisms already in existence adapt to environments already in existence. Even scientists who support the big bang theory are aware that the conditions required for the bang to have happened, and the scientific evidence that substantiates this theory, point to some kind of creator. (Harun Yahya) Charles Townes, chief inventor of the laser says, “to think that science already knows enough to be certain there are no mystical forces is illogical.” In fact, there are a great many things that science alone can not explain and these missing pieces leave room for and necessitate religion and its subsequent beliefs. Without religion there would be no purpose in life, no reason even to study the sciences or the earth and how it came to be. There needs to be an understanding, in every person, that pieces of this perfect system of continual motion and self sustaining abilities can be explained through empirical studies and experimentation. However, the gift of being able to comprehend that perfection and the creation of everything that is perfect and self sustaining came from the design of a higher power.

There were two prominent scientists, of the twentieth century, that were imbued with this balance of faith and mind. These men were Albert Einstein and Abdus Salam. Although these men differ drastically in their upbringing and religious backgrounds, both have the same understanding of the interconnectivity between religion and science. Albert Einstein was born in Germany on March 14, 1879. In 1901 he received his undergraduate diploma and by 1905 he received his doctorate degree. From the year 1901 until around 1908, Einstein made some ground breaking work in the field of physics. He dealt with the reconciliation of the laws of mechanics with the laws of electromagnetic fields, statistical mechanics, quantum theory, and in 1916 he published his paper on the general theory of relativity. During the 1920's Einstein lectured all over the globe from Europe to the Middle East and was either given membership or fellowship and all the important scientific academies of his time. Einstein was very aware of the need to spread knowledge and scientific thought around the world. Therefore, after WWII, he became deeply involved in the World Government Movement and he was even offered the Presidency of the State of Israel. He declined, but he did help establish the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. When asked if he was religious, Einstein responded with,

“My feeling is insofar religious as I am imbued with the

Consciousness of the insufficiency of the human mind.

To understand deeply the harmony of the Universe.

Which we try to formulate as laws of nature.”


Here, Einstein shows how truly advanced a thinker he was. He perfectly synthesizes religion and science and because of that he is able to achieve greater levels of success and influence a greater number of people. Einstein understood that his ability to even notice the laws of nature was a given to him as a gift from the same being or power that created the laws in the first place.

“My religion consists of a humble admiration for this illimitable, superior

Spirit that revels itself in the slight details that we are able to perceive

With our frail and feeble minds.”

Einstein is aware that his investigations into science do not explain the purpose of this perfect system or its inhabitants, but that his findings should be used to better the lives of people in general, because science affected the lives of everybody. The morality of Einstein would be called humanitarian by today's standards. He never helped others nor spread his teachings out of fear of punishment from an all knowing, anthropomorphic God that was present in our every day lives. He helped others and spread knowledge because he felt it was the humane, just thing to do. Einstein held the teachings of all major religions in high regard. This can be seen through his quotations about Jesus, Buddha and God,

“What these Blessed men have gives us we must guard and try

To keep alive with all our strength if humanity is

Not to lose its dignity, the security of its existence, and its joy in living.”

Albert Einstein was a famous physicist in his time and became infamous in the years following his death. One major reason for his success, was that he was driven to continue his studies in science, by his driving need to understand as much as possible the perfection and harmony inherent in the universe. Einstein understood that science was a means to an end not the end in and of itself. Through the use of science he could explain a small part of a Universe wholly connected and self sustaining. However, it was his belief in a higher power that motivated him and gave him the ability to study and understand a part of the Universe it had created.

Another example of the benefits that can be gained through the fusion, rather than separation, of religion and science comes from the physicist Abdus Salam. Abdus Salam was born in 1926 in a small town of present day Pakistan . Born the son of an official for the department of education, schooling was always a major part of his life. By the time Abdus Salam was twenty-five years old he had already received his PhD in theoretical physics from Cambridge University and had his thesis, regarding quantum electrodynamics, published. In 1979, Salam went on to receive the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on Gauge Unification of Fundamental Forces. Abdus Salam was an exceptionally gifted scientist who saw an interconnectivity of all human beings through science. This connection is the reason why Abdus Salam has spent his life trying to improve international peace relations and more specifically scientific development in third world countries. At the Nobel Prize Banquet, Abdus Salam quotes Allah, in his speech, saying,

“Thou seest not, in the creation of the All-merciful any imperfection, Return thy gaze, seest thou any fissure. Then Return thy gaze, again and again. Thy gaze, Comes back to thee dazzled, aweary.”

For Abdus, this quote from the Quran epitomized all of his scientific work. The longer and harder he studied physics and the perfection in which it functioned the more awe struck he became, and the greater the desire to continue studying. The religious spirit of Abdus allowed him to accept there was a divine creator that made all these unique systems for a reason and motivated him to continue his studies to learn about these systems and use that knowledge to help those that did not know about their workings. Being able to see the equalizing factor of science allowed Abdus Salam to see the equality of every human and the collectivity of knowledge that was required for him to continue his work. Salam wrote,

“The Holy Quran enjoins us to reflect on the verities of Allah's created laws of nature; however, that our generation has been privileged to glimpse a part of His design is abounty and a grace for which I render thanks with a humble heart.”

Religion and faith kept Abdus Salam grounded and shown him that although he can do great things through the understanding of these all powerful systems, he is in no position to create or alter them himself. By not wanting to act as creator Abdus Salam is able to better the lives of those that are less fortunate than he is. He participated in more than six United Nation Assignments and received seven awards for his contributions towards peace. Throughout the course of his eighty years of life, Abdus Salam knew his role in life and was extremely successful in his chosen career. On top of that, he helped and continues to help to this day, through his institutions, millions of people. He made a difference in the world, and he was able to make that difference because he had the necessary balance between a faithful spirit and an excellent mind.

From this brief synopsis of Abdus Salam's career, it can be seen that he was a man of action as well as thought. Salam's desire to spread his beliefs and knowledge to others caused him to create The International Center for Theoretical Physics, or ICTP. Founded in 1964, ICTP operates under the motto

“Scientific thought is the common heritage of mankind. (Salam)


ICTP was formed by an agreement between two United Nations agencies, UNESCO and IAEA, and the Italian government. Created by Salam, in a European country during the cold war, ICTP allowed a rare form of communication between scientists in the East and West, effectively opening the iron curtain. Today, the center focuses on the North and the South, trying to aid the developing countries of the world to become more advanced scientifically and to play a more pivotal role in the cutting edge scientific research of today. To attain this goal, ICTP conducts research and training activities in all different areas of science, effectively brining about 6,000 visiting scientists, annually, to study there. In 2005, 4061 scientists from around the world visited ICTP for an average of one month to work and do research. (ictp.statistics) The amount of sheer connection that can be found in this institution is awe inspiring. Ideas and information can be spread from all over the world, and seemingly, this inter-connectivity is above the turmoil of today's current political situations. Representatives from Iran , Iraq , Saudi Arabia , the United States , Mexico and the United Kingdom were all present in 2005 alone. It is for this reason that we are examining this institution so profoundly. Abdus Salam's career was based on his balance of faith and knowledge and consequently so was the institution he created. Abdus Salam saw science as being universal because he was able to understand that we all come from the same creator and because of this, we all operate in the same system. Therefore, the experimentation or study of that system is common to all people regardless of sex, race, or creed. Also, the function of this institution has an inherently religious function. Yes, it is all about the advancement in the scientific community, however, the way in which the richer nations aid the poor and try to help them expand their understanding and participation, is based on the morality of religion. Just as Abdus Salam powered his life's work with his religious backing, so to does his organization. All of the teachings of the Quran or the Bible have the idea of rich helping poor, neighbor helping neighbor, and in effect helping their God through others like ourselves. Abdus Salam and ICTP use their influence to help bring together all people with their common history and creation. Once everyone has come together above all the dividing factors of race and sex, the more advanced countries aid the lesser while at the same time listening to their ideas and feedback on scientific matters.

Over the past decade science and religion has begun the process of bridging the gap that has divided them for so many centuries. Through organizations such as the one created by Abdus Salam, as well as through individuals directly involved and the educational programs offered at universities. One individual who significantly bridged the gap or at least lessened it is Dr. Keith Moore, an embryologist from the University of Toronto . Dr. Moore embarked on a two year scientific mission, flying to and from Saudi Arabia , with the intention of helping Muslim men identifying whether or not specific passages in the Quran had any scientific significance. The Quran is one of the holy books of Islam, a religion with the second highest following in the world. Therefore, to have a Catholic scientist help in its translation and measure of importance, scientifically, is a huge step forward for the coming together of science and religion. The Islamic scholars presented Dr. Moore with English translations of several Quranic verses. One such verse read,

“God makes you in the wombs of your mothers in stages, one after another,


Within three veils of darkness.”


Moore easily could see the possible connection of these three veils of darkness with the


mothers' abdominal wall, the uterus wall, and the amniochronic membrane. Another


verse read,


“Thereafter, we created of the drop a thing which clings,


A leech like structure.”


Moore, and others, found the image of an Arabic leech to bear a remarkable resemblance to a human embryo at 24 days, and the embryo does cling to the uterine wall at this stage. Other verses shown to Moore accurately speak of when the features and sex of the embryo become visible and of the necessity for both male and female sex products being necessary for conception. These verses have been in the Quran since the seventh century and yet science did not discover anything about embryos of how to conceive a child until the eighteenth century. Also the in depth, accurate description of the stage by stage embryonic development was never even proposed until the 1940's. This situation clearly shows the relationship between science and religion to be one in which science is being used to explain and to understand the workings of a higher power. Muslims have been reciting these verses for over 1,000 years and it is only now with advances in technology, and the application of these advancements to religious matters, can we see the truth of a religious school of thought. (Zuhair Kashmeri)

Another arena in which religion and science are now blending is the academic world of Universities. In the summer of 1999, The Center for the Study of Science and Religion, of CSSR, was founded at Columbia University . The purpose of CSSR is to “examine the intersections that cross over the boundaries between one or another science and one of another religion, the CSSR hopes to stimulate dialogue and encourage understanding.” (Excerpt from Mission Statement) CSSR is an intercollegiate organization the will be offering classes to students at Colombia both at the undergraduate and graduate levels. It is the hope of CSSR that through their mixing of science and religion they will be able to eradicate the social ills of today and preserve the environment for future generations. Columbia University and its students created this organization not only with the hopes of understanding all the problems that arise from the continued separation of religion and science but also of learning about ways to fix them. Columbia is not the only university with organizations like these. Cambridge University founded the International Society for Science and Religion in 2002. Loyola University built the McNamara Center for the social study of Religion. Religion is no longer taking the backseat to science, or capitalism. People living in today's world are aware of the feeling of incompleteness or purposeless ways of everyday life. Slowly but surely people and society are coming to realize that faith and religion must be at the cornerstone of scientific thought to give scientists and their whole field of service any purpose or meaning.

Even though the synthesis of religion and science has been increasing steadily there is still a very real opposition to this synthesis. Some scientists still hold the belief that religion is completely useless and will soon be disproved by the advanced technologies of science. One such scientist is Richard Dawkins. Born and raised in Africa, Dawkins came to England in 1959 to study under the instruction of Tinbergen, a famous ethologist. After receiving his masters' degree, Dawkins began to take an interest in and eventually push to the forefront of scientific thought the idea of the evolution of the human gene. Dawkins presented questions such as which genes dominate? Which genes change, die off…etc. What he was searching for was the evolution of the human gene as an explanation of animal and human behaviors and interactions. One component of Dawkins argument is what is known as memes. Memes are comparable to viruses of the mind that Dawkins claims are part of a persons cultural inheritance and that these ideas could change just as the human gene could. Therefore, Dawkins comes to the conclusion that human evolution is a function of co-evolution between the genes and memes. Regarding religion, Dawkins feels as if faith is one of the most vile and fearsome things in our age. In his acceptance speech for the 1996 Humanist of the year award he says,

“I think a case can be made that faith is one of the world's great evils,


Comparable to the smallpox virus but harder to eradicate.”


For Dawkin, religion and science should never synthesize because, he feels, there is no benefit for it. He is a stubborn believer that science has many of religions virtues and none of its vices, faith. Faith scares Dawkin so much because it allows people to do things without a logical reason and believe things that seem completely ridiculous without any thought to its validity. Dawkin argues that the benefits of religion, explanation, consolation, and its uplifting quality, can all be found in the scientific realm. Explanation through the facts, consolation through the use of pain killers, and uplifting would occur with the breakthrough of new scientific discoveries and technology. The feeling that religion and science must remain separated was not felt only on an individual level. An organization called the Brights' Net, which Dawkin in a part of, is composed of tens of thousands of members from over 138 nations. These members are atheists, naturalists, agnostics, and any other denomination that doesn't believe in a higher spiritual being. There are three main goals of the Brights' organization. Briefly, they are to spread:

  1. The naturalist viewpoint to raise awareness.
  2. Promoting their importance.
  3. Equity in the civic participation of its members.

While understanding that there is plethora of individuals and groups that see religion and faith as the thing of the past, the new generation should not believe so, it would defy logic.

There is an actual school of scientific thought that aims at proving spiritual experiences such as divine insight or even speaking in tongues is no more than a specific set of reactions occurring in your brain at a certain time. The study of the brain is called neuroscience and it is the last real unknown of the human body. A possible reason for this lack of knowledge is a lack of comprehension as to how the brain is formed. Every proton, neutron, and electron, in every brain of every living human is exactly identical. However, each brain is absolutely different from any other and the brain can change dramatically through certain types of stress or any type of head injury. What neuroscientists do know about the brain is that consciousness is a state of perceptions and the consciousness of reality is dependant upon the reactions taking place in our mind through neural transmitters. The state of ecstasy or becoming one with the Universe and the supernatural being has long been thought a religious phenomenon. However, Deikman sums up the five characteristics of spiritual enlightenment as,

  1. Intense realness, more real even than ordinary experience.


  1. Unusual sensations, e.g. being wrapped in light or a flame colored
    cloud, or hearing enchantingly lovely music.


  1. The feeling of unity, that the individual and the whole cosmos is one.


  1. Ineffability, being unable to speak about it because the experience is outside the range of normal experience.


  1. Transensate phenomena or experiences which go beyond and are different from the usual sensory experiences of ordinary life.


Deikman goes on to explain that whatever system of mental discipline a person uses to illuminate and advance one's growth spiritually certain features of the higher states of experience are common to all. These fall into two types, those which remain once the experience has receded and those which are only present during the time of the experience, the tonic and the phasic. The phasic features relate to the actual content of the experience, for example, the perception of a flame colored cloud, or seeing with the inward eye the very atoms of which the universe is composed. Changes of emotion are also phasic in that they rise to a peak of intensity at the height of the experience when feelings of universal bliss and love occur. These then dissipate with the experience. Cognition is also altered temporarily with the feeling of `I' changing from the limited to the universal. With the experience there also comes the feeling of certainty, that what is perceived is true, no other form of validation is required. The feeling of I, Deikman believes, stems from the temporal lobe of the brain suggesting that the temporal lobe is concerned with the mystical experience and that disorders of function in this area can lead to the genesis of spontaneous mystical experience and can also produce personality changes which have as one feature excessive religiosity. Synaesthesia, a subjective sensation or image of a sense other than the one being stimulated, is another way in which scientists are disproving the spiritual experience. The commonest form of synaesthaesia is color-hearing. In this form, if a person hears a musical note he will at the same time see a particular and specific color. There are two basic concepts for the cause of synaesthaesia one is that it's learned, the other is the basic perceptional experience which becomes differentiated only as it develops along the channels of the different special senses, but it also represents a unity which underpins them all. This second concept fits with Deikman's idea that the basic substance of experience is the neural code but that the structure of the brain provides the interpretation of consciousness. Therefore, Deikman argues that structure, the actual form of the cerebral cortex, is in part responsible for the particular form that sensations appearing in consciousness take.
This fact may provide an explanation to the mystical experience of unity. The feeling of unity may simply be due to changes in mood as it can easily be explained by changes in those systems which deal with emotion. While we know that the mind is a complex organ, understanding it will help us understand how the mind works and see that it was created by a superior being, we can figure out the “how” and we should try and accept the “who.”

After completely understanding the importance of why there is a synergy between science and religion, one has the responsibility to promote this “idea” throughout society. One key path that one can take to promote this “idea” is through the restructuring of our Colleges and Universities. We can take Al-Azhar University as an example. Al-Azhar can be used as a cornerstone, to show that religion goes hand in hand with science and religion. Al-Azhar University was initially built as a mosque for Muslims and has been around for over a thousand years. It is considered one of the greatest schools for Arabic language, sciences, mathematics, mental arts, Muslim jurisprudence, and many more respected majors. This school is known and recognized internationally, especially within the Muslim community. This university falls within the ranks of Universities such as Harvard and Oxford , to say the least.

Scientific education has seen great changes in the last 2500 years of history, not only in what is being taught, but also in the manner of that teaching. The role of scientific education has varied dramatically throughout history. From the highest respect in Ancient Greece, an almost disappearance in the Middle Ages, to its resurgence in modern times, the struggle to provide a sound and purposeful scientific education is still an issue today. A purposeful scientific education, as described by Al-Azhar, is when religion and the sciences come together and work in complete harmony.

“As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality” (Albert Einstein)

It is very interesting to see how the teaching approach has progressed through the different times in history. It will be helpful for an instructor to be able to tell the students that science was looked down upon and was mainly taught to the working class, namely trader, and now has developed into a knowledge which is crucial and absolutely necessary to function in the modern world. With the introduction of Islam almost fifteen hundred years ago and the introduction of Christianity almost two thousand years ago, religion taught every individual to learn and teach the sciences. Islam not only encouraged folks to learn and teach the sciences it also gave people a head start by introducing ideas centuries ahead of its time in explicit detail. For example, the idea that the earth is round and revolves around the sun is stated directly in the Quran. Al – Jabr, a great mathematician developed algebra, a key element in mathematics today, in light of the Quran. It helps one to recognize that we fail to give the students a connection between the real world and the science they are learning in the classrooms. In ancient times the way they learned math was through practical everyday examples. Science and future science instructors need to learn the value of science from history and how religion played a major role in its development. This will enable them to conclude the accurate appreciation of science for themselves and their students. Instructors must bring science back to real world examples. While giving us variables and formulas, he/she should tell us where we can use these formulas in everyday life and show us how religion supports these claims. Learning the history of science is a crucial part of teaching mathematics. To be able to look back at the origin of a subject and be able to trace its evolution is beneficial to students. Instructors will be able to deliver to the students a more comprehensive approach of the study of mathematics by giving them a connection between real world examples from history to what they are learning. Al-Azhar university is a great example, a university that bridges the gap between science and religion effectively through there a proper curriculum.

If we also look throughout history, education in Ancient Greece varied from state to state. Spartan students were sent to military schools where they were taught to become highly trained soldiers. The Athenian youth were taught music and gymnastics from an early age to reach toward the goal of physical and mental perfection. (Gutek 1995) In most Greek states, the upper classes learned the minimum which included Letters, Music, Gymnastics, and some Arithmetic or Geometry (Gutek 1995). Two ways to further basic learning were to either employ a sophist or attend one of the colleges or academies set up by the likes of Plato, Aristotle, or Pythagoras. A method of casual conversation was used to teach mathematics by these great minds. Groups of students would gather around and ask questions of someone more knowledgeable. He, in turn, would attempt to answer them and then a discussion would begin on the subject. This teaching method greatly contrasts the methods used today. The topic of philosophy, religion and science were always connected.

Pythagoras's school was set up in 518 BC in Croton. Many advances in the science of numbers and geometry were made here. The Pythagorean's believed that everything in the world and universe can in some manner be mathematically expressed; religion played absolutely no part in there view. This extreme view that Pythagoreans took toward science seemed to have an negative effect, this school did not survive long. Many educationalists believed that prolonged consideration of mathematical ideas led the mind to a level of abstraction which drew it away from the realities of the world we live in. (O'Connor & Robertson 2000) This view moved science education into the shadows for many hundreds of years. The mathematical concepts started to diminish and mathematical advancements started coming to a halt. If students were informed about this terrible time during the history of science, they would feel honored to learn a craft that was so faintly surviving and see that science in its fundamental form can be harmful to itself and mankind but if mixed with religion it can be a ever flowing river of knowledge.

Later, Plato's ideas of mathematics and science in life were far less extreme than the Pythagorean Society. Plato considered science to be the basis from which to move into philosophical thought, which were in turn built upon religious ideas and thus, a student should study it for the first 10 years of his education. He encouraged the study of science because he felt it encouraged the most precise and definite kinds of thinking of which humans are capable. Plato was able to bring back science, have it taught well, and connect science with reality.

The educational system in Ancient Rome was patterned after the Greeks. However, the Roman's believed more in the utility and practicality of education. Philosopher Quintillion recommended that geometry be studied for two reasons. The first is that the thought process involved in proofs and understanding axioms is important mental training and second it is important for discussions on land measurement and other political and social problems that may arise. In light of religion these political and social problems could be dealt with rationally. Here one sees yet another example of another civilization bridging the gap between mathematics and the real world.

After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe went through a phase where concentration on knowledge and education were interrupted, the dark ages. This was due to the lack of peaceful times and the loss of books and texts. During this time religion became the central aspect of every person's life, science took a back seat. Everything was explained through religion, vast universal phenomenon where linked to sorcery or witchcraft. Yet, the schools in Europe during this time were set up by the monasteries. The religious institution kept the dwindling flame of mathematics and science going. These institutions kept true to the fact that “there is a synergy between religion and Science.” The education received at most places was limited to reading, writing, and Bible studies. The study of science was restricted to the great Cathedral schools. The great Cathedral school at York was headed by Bishop Egbert in 732. He set up a curriculum that included Arithmetic, Geometry, and Easter Calculations. One of the students at York, Alcuin, later set up his own school in France that had similar standards (Gutek 1995). Science survived through the middle ages because of school such as these, another example of a low point in mathematical history.

The level of education began to diminish again until a Frenchman, Gerbert, found mathematics texts including the works of Boethius. Boethius was one of the few Romans that were interested in Geometry enough to write texts that detailed the work done by Roman Surveyors. Gerbert, who later became Pope Sylvester II, used the work of Boethius to start a brief resurgence in interest of science. As a matter of fact, there is evidence that he may have brought back the Hindu-Arabic numerals, without zero, to Christian Europe (Eves 1990). During the 10 th century column calculation was introduced amongst the merchant class. However, the Church had an increasing desire to rid Europe of ‘pagan' ways and ideals. This included the broad education that had been encouraged by those such as Gerbert and mathematics again fell out of favor (O'Connor & Robertson 2000). We have all heard the term that “history will repeat itself” and believe that we can't do anything to change this cycle, we would be as wrong as the kings of the middle ages (strictly religion) or the Pythagoreans of 500 B.C. (strictly science), we need to break this cycle and see that religion and science does co-exist.

With this brief glimpse of history of science and religion we see that alone both “science” and “religion” are actually destructive to human society. Science and religion should work together in harmony, one should aid the other.

Our world today is one of severe imbalance and division. Countries are ravaged by war and people divided because of skin color or religious belief. With all the diversity in the Universe the only way that we are going to obtain any type of peace of hope for future generations is through tolerance and the restoration of balance in society. The synthesizing of religion and science will allow everybody that cares to look, see the innate perfection and connection that exists between all humans. While implementing new programs of reform or simply conducting research, the moral criteria of religion will be present to calm the ambition and competitive nature of humans. Without religion there is no motivation or purpose to studying the world and all of its mysteries. Without religion there is no purpose to even living life, no mission or objective that you were destined to complete. However, religion without science can't work either. People need to see some sort of empirical proof, and as evidenced by Dr. Moore and his dealings with the Quran, science can provide the proof necessary for the doubters to reaffirm their faith.




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