20 January 2007
Every morning in Africa , a gazelle wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the fastest lion or it will be killed. Every morning a lion wakes up. It knows it must outrun the slowest gazelle or it will starve to death. It doesn't matter whether you are a lion or a gazelle. When the sun comes up, you better start running (Friedman 114).
Do not be surprised when you call US companies for technical or billing assistance and are transferred to India or the Philippines because we live in an “outsourcing” era. It has changed and continues to change the structure, organization, and philosophy of businesses worldwide, with the assistance of technology, providing many benefits for US employers. The ones to suffer realistically from outsourcing are the “employees” of the United States , as their job functions are transferred to international companies, posing further concerns about the viability of services, protection of confidential information, and the stability of the United States ' economy. This evokes the question if outsourcing should be abolished in America by the end of 2008, disfavoring the cost-saving strategies of US CEOs and securing our economy; or should outsourcing continue to expand and potentially obstruct the US 's economic and social conditions, transferring its innovativeness and superpower status to developing countries like India and China ?
There are many US supporters of outsourcing due to its supposedly cost-saving benefits; otherwise, the globalization method would not be so popular today. Nevertheless, as Sunil Chopra, professor of operations management at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University states it, “ [a]ll good outsourcing decisions benefit capital, but they don't necessarily benefit labor” (qtd. in Boyd 1). This unequal method favoring America 's employers can be solved by an outcome benefiting all types of US workers.
A utopian solution to help American employees and job seekers would be to utilize technology and science in creating efficient methods that can start to replace the outsourcing functions of foreign countries in 2008, including the establishment of domestic short-term secondary schools from 10 th grade to college level, named 21 st century schools. These secondary schools will focus on the latest science, math, and technology, as these are the job-demanding areas predominantly outsourced ( Rising Above The Gathering Storm ES-1). Consequently, US employees will have the proper skills to work efficiently on all types of projects, especially time-sensitive ones, which would reduce labor costs, generating comparative advantage for the United States ' companies. This will allow US employers to obtain the advantages of outsourcing domestically, while US employees will have secure jobs, which will protect the innovativeness of the United States and its social and economic conditions. My proposal interrelates with The Committee on the Global Economy of the 21 st century remark, “[w] ithout high-quality, knowledge-intensive jobs, and the innovative enterprises that lead to discovery and new technology, [the US ] economy will suffer and our people will face a lower standard of living” ( Rising Above The Gathering Storm 1).
Outsourcing is prominent today even though this method began in the 1990s ( Houghton Mifflin Company 1). This was when the dot-com explosion occurred. US companies started to collaborate with foreign companies through the unconventional setup provided by the Internet: “Science and technology … alter the nature of the labor process, not only the rationalized manual labor but also intellectual labor, especially the professions” (Aronowitz and DiFazio 17). There was no confinement whatsoever in the Internet's communication process, enabling individuals to have unlimited access to each other. The world is starting to get smaller and smaller regardless how far nations were apart from each other.
The functions of the Internet continued to improve. Astonishingly, the Internet “has doubled in size every year” (Krotseng 45) due to its high demand. This especially benefited India - mainly from the dot-com boom to the dot-com bust between 2000-2002 (Computer Desktop Encyclopedia 1) - as companies were in dire need of many cheap technologists and engineers (Friedman 110-111) in an attempt to restore fallen companies and the US's competitiveness. Thereafter, outsourcing became the most popular method of labor, leading to various types of work transferred - through the same or similar means- to other countries as well, including China and the Philippines . Outsourcing is no longer a limited word that only America 's employers know about, since the method greatly affects other workers as well.
The practice of outsourcing involves the “delegation of non-core operations from internal production to an external entity specializing in the management of the operation” (Wikipedia 1). In other words, it is collaboration between US businesses and foreign suppliers in terms of company decisions and control. There are two other types of outsourcing functions besides outsourcing itself: offshore outsourcing and offshoring. Offshore outsourcing involves an organization transferring its internal functions to a third party “regardless of whether the work stays in a corporation or not” (Wikipedia 1). Offshoring involves providing some organizational functions abroad but not all. There are similar methods that relate and are assisted by outsourcing like supply-chaining, which involves suppliers of products in different countries (like in Walmart); and In-sourcing, which is a concept dealing with smaller and third-party companies exclusively worldwide (Friedman 128,141).
The many domains that partake in outsourcing are “manufacturing of components, computer programming services, accounting functions, training administration, customer service, transportation of products, benefits and compensation planning, payroll, and other human resource functions” (Encyclopedia of Small Business 1). Even US employees relocate to foreign countries through outsourcing companies due to their job situation, but they receive less pay based on the currency exchange rate. How unfair! But what can these employees do with scarce choices. Many other US businesses are headed towards transferring their internal functions and control to foreign countries because of the significant tangible benefits.
US companies are trying to take advantage of all the convenient aspects of outsourcing – including reducing the amount of labor costs, staffing – to fund intellectual capital. Moreover, they want to obtain valuable expertise from experienced, foreign workers and thus expend less intellectual and physical effort. In other words, employers are trying to get more for less. For this reason, they utilize outside knowledge for the benefit of their company. This in turn gives comparative advantage for American companies and some benefits for non-Western countries, including the Philippines and India , “in terms of increased wages, job prestige, education, and quality of life” (Wikipedia 1).
The most common type of outsourcing in the United States is offshoring. This type of outsourcing consists of subcategories: production, service, and innovation offshoring. The US business functions that are predominantly offshored are manufacturing and telecommunications. Companies engage in offshoring mainly due to the cheap costs of factories and operations in foreign countries, in addition to inexpensive and efficient labor. I think this is just another financial tactic that benefits US employers financially temporarily, as they save the costs on foreign sites – which is how offshoring differs from general outsourcing – to produce cheap commodities. In addition, some supporters believe that offshoring is “benefiting both the origin and destination country through free trade providing jobs to the destination country and lower cost of goods and services to the origin country” (Wikipedia 1); consequently, both countries boost their GDP and employment.
Offshoring, however, involves negative factors that are similar to general outsourcing, like causing a high unemployment rate. For instance, “companies in the southeast US … closed mills and factories as they shifted their textile manufacturing operations to China and Southeast Asia ” (Reh 1). There is more to this information! According to the California Legislature, 15 percent of US jobs were outsourced to other countries in 2003 with billions of dollars subjected to outsourcing, potentially leading to $23 billion in 2008 for this sector (Mintz 1). That means the 15 percent job loss is definitely likely to increase, as outsourcing is a growing trend. Moreover, Cynthia Kroll, senior regional economist at UC Berkeley stated, “at least 14 million service-sector jobs are at risk of being outsourced over the next decade” (Mintz 1).
This issue is affecting the jobs of blue-collar, and recently, white-collar workers in all domains. US workers, including college graduates, displaced by offshoring are in a perplexing position since they have to choose whether to remain unemployed or relocate abroad to work for a low-paying foreign company.
Crystal Aaron, a former painter and current professor, has seen the negative side of offshoring when the American company she worked for, Arts Supplies Co., abruptly shifted to Mexico in 1999. This was due to the CEO's decision in cutting down the expenses of his company, despite a large starting budget and satisfactory economic state. The sad fact is that Crystal was a hard worker and enjoyed her position as a painter because painting was her passion; the day she left the company was one of the worst days of her life. She was like those other US workers “who earned their comfortable lives thorough hard work, by doing all the right things, and had lost anyway” ( The Downsizing of America 231). Crystal eventually switched her profession as a professor, although she loved the painting job better. Even until today she wonders what went wrong back then. And sometimes she wishes she could prevent being laid-off and then thinks of how, as she did not know “if anyone was going to pull the lever,… what the lever looked like, … and where it was” at her work ( The Downsizing of American 230)
Moreover, Offshoring supporters, specifically employers, rely on false statistical reports depicting a shortage of workers excluding the many currently unemployed to justify the reasoning of US jobs overseas. Extensive research has been conducted to display the inaccurate statistics many support to reinforce their manipulative objectives. To exemplify, Vivek Wadhwa, CEO and professor at Duke University , concluded in a recent article that there was no shortage of engineers based on a research study he conducted in an experimental workplace; the case was based on applicant and employment rates with 78 executives in the United States , and executives in India and China (1).
Another problem of offshoring is the inadequate legal protection of offshored businesses in foreign locations. This is an obvious concern in all areas of outsourcing as companies are remote and therefore seldom supervise each other. I further describe how money is the main concern at the cost of US's safety and protection for US employers. Recently, improper legal laws have facilitated fraudulent practices, particularly in April and September 2005 involving employees from India . The Indian workers were swindling consumers' credit cards, and other personal information, which resulted in a loss of $350,000 dollars for the consumers (Wikpedia 1). These incidents occur when you give “unknown people” access to confidential information of another country. Corruption in foreign countries, especially India , also adds to the problems associated with the legal issues of offshoring. This has caused many American businesses to establish factories overseas through the illegal way involving bribery and blackmail, favoring the specified foreign country.
Additionally, many US employers are also unaware of the hidden fees and intangible costs associated with offshoring that can turn out to be expensive: cost of vendors, cost of branch(s) relocation, cost of layoffs, cost of services, and cost of offshore contracts (Overby 1). That means we should reconsider if we are saving money from outsourcing or not. There is also the intangible cost of cultural differences that cause conflicts and misunderstandings between foreign workers and US workers. Personal conflicts can sometimes outweigh the tangible benefits of outsourcing. My uncle, Swapan Nandy, in particular has seen the negative results of cultural differences in his company.
Swapan Nandy is a pharmaceutical specialist at Glaxo Smithkline (GSK) Pharmaceutical in Detroit , Michigan . His company's call centers were transferred to Hyderabad , Pakistan in 2001 due to outsourcing. He was astonished at this transformation and thought that his company made an unplanned decision by transferring business functions to Hyderabad . In a matter of few days, he started to hear complaints from other employees that the quality of service was poor and unsatisfactory in Hyderabad because of its inferior operational services. They also complained of having communication problems with workers from Hyderabad due to language differences, which was time-consuming and frustrating for the US workers. He was amazed at how quick problems developed due to the restructuring of his company. Swapan knew that bigger difficulties were about to occur and cannot understand why his company made an unwise decision to save a couple of bucks for a seemingly futile practice of outsourcing (Telephone Interview).
On the contrary, Austin (a common pseudonym), a Dell Technician in India , loves his job and obtains many benefits from globalization. He has received tangible rewards from outsourcing; although he believes its intangible rewards outweigh the tangible ones. One of the advantages of outsourcing according to Austin is the ability to connect with diverse people around the world and develop friendship with them. The global unity he feels also consists of expansion of knowledge worldwide benefiting many countries, not just one. Another significant point Austin mentioned about global unity is the fact that the toll-free 800 numbers in US are “international” numbers. Furthermore, he feels a unity in his homeland thanks to outsourcing, unlike Swapan, since other Dell workers support each other like family members, especially since they each work long hours. This contributes to Austin 's satisfaction of the rigorous training he has done and continues to do, along with others, in order to provide competent support to global customers (Telephone Interview).
The two previous accounts are inconsistent as two different workers, Swapan and Austin, have opposing views on outsourcing. Austin loves outsourcing as he lives in India , which is positively affected by job transference; while “ it is individual American workers [like Swapan] who [are feeling] the direct impact of jobs being shipped overseas ...” (Yasgur and Nounou 1). Besides that, Austin is hopeful of the prosperous future of India economically, which adds to his excitement of outsourcing. Swapan, on the other hand, is worried about the demise of US workers in his pharmaceutical company. This is also affecting other US companies as well.
Furthermore, offshoring and general outsourcing strengthens foreign companies' competitive edge as the relocation of US branches involves transference of knowledge, especially intellectual property. This is a case where “the former [ United States ] puts more back into the economy in which it operates [foreign country] than does the latter” (Dunkerley 109). That is why other countries are increasingly having a share of US's labor and capital market. A recent work study was done by the Heritage Foundation, called Job Creation and the Taxation of Foreign-Source Income , observing that China “generates more than 21 percent of U.S. economic output, produces 56 percent of U.S. exports [so don't be surprised to see “Made In China” labels on products more often], and employs three-fifths of all manufacturing employees” (qtd. in Friedman 123). There are many educated workers from India as well doing work for the US at a low cost for many hours per week although with the sense of improving India 's economy as it continues to grow substantially. That basically means international companies are addressing “other concerns” (Dunkerley 109) rather than just the monetary benefits of outsourcing.
Sudershan Takia, former Microsoft Technician Supervisor in India and current Lingo Telecommunications Technician in Canada , sees non-US countries progressing in various factors, especially in the education area; while the United States is still stagnating, (he mentioned that the stagnation was also due to the Iraq War). He has observed that many Indians working for the Microsoft Company in India have migrated from the US , despite working for lower wages in US currency. Sudershan believes this situation is such because workers know India is evolving, thus one day becoming a superpower along with China . One of the positive aspects of this is that India 's and China 's foreign currency will go up while there can be a deviation of US's currency.
Moreover, Sudershan thinks that Canada has a bright future as well. The fact that Canada has an impartial and free health care system (despite higher tax system) and higher life-expectancy rate (Wheelwright 1) adds to the positive points of Canadian life besides the benefits of outsourcing. Some experts think that Canada and America are joint countries because of certain borders, but Sudershan believes this will all change due to globalization. (In fact, last month for the first time, it became illegal to cross to the Canadian side without a US passport.) This, along with the other comments from Sudershan, evokes a grim outlook for United States .
Sudershan seems to be accurate in stating that the educational system of foreign countries is superior to that of the United States ', which can further hinder American innovativeness. According to National Academies of Sciences and Engineering, “US 15-year olds ranked 24 th out of 40 countries that participated in a 2003 administration of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) examination, which assesses students' ability to apply mathematical concepts to real-world problems” ( Rising Above The Gathering Storm 10). Developing countries like India and China are on the top of the list in the statistical measurement, which is a major reason US employers transfer work to foreign workers in attempt to get labor completed in an efficient and creative way, which superfluously profits US employers “only.” Likewise, 50 percent of China's and India's undergraduates receive degrees in science and/or engineering, while only 15 percent of US's undergrads receive their degrees in the corresponding fields. China and India seem to have a better educational rate than the US does considering the fact that almost 56 percent of US's PhDs in specialized fields are from abroad ( Rising Above The Gathering Storm 10). Even Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates is amazed at America 's declining education system; thus, he recently advocated to Congress to implement rigorous educational standards in subjects facilitating innovativeness. As Bill Gates states, “ we simply cannot sustain an economy based on innovation unless our citizens are educated in math, science and engineering” (ZuckerBrod 1).
It seems as if the American dollar is becoming inferior just like United States ' education system. An Ebay business seller, David Tinsletown, from United Kingdom has given me some insight on the declining dollar in comparison to UK pound and euros. David has been working with financial accountants in addition to being a powerful seller on Ebay Inc. He has observed the constant changes of the US dollar.
He thinks that the US dollar's value reduced in comparison to the pound, which used to be one dollar to six pounds but now is one dollar to approximately 50 cents for a pound, due to significant economic factors. One of the factors he mentioned is America 's imports exceeds its exports, causing a trade deficit and lowering its Gross Domestic Product, actively contributed to by outsourcing. In addition, he thinks the large overhead upon the government's shoulders, like subsidizing General Motors Company, affects the foreign exchange rate as well. However, David did not provide any solutions to this problem because then again, he is happy that UK is flourishing (and even mentioned his excitement to me via email) like Austin, the interviewee from India . David cannot do anything about the US 's problem regardless of having a solution because politicians and officials in America are often adamantly opposed to suggestions, another point he raised.
So does that mean the economy of the United States is doomed for destruction? We have already noticed how outsourcing is affecting employment, security, and intangible aspects, particularly the inventive and competitive side of the US , which is causing the increase in layoffs of US workers but strengthening foreign countries. Hershey Company, for example, has a plan to lay off 1,500 workers and transfer their work to Canada (Boal 1). This seemed to be inevitable since other companies are doing the same thing in order to favor the US CEOs' pockets at the expense of the lesser employees. One of the biggest stories of the news is one company after another unexpectedly downsizing. Hartford Financial Services Group has also recently decided to eradicate 400 jobs. The company thinks it is mollifying the impact on employees with the decision that “110 employees of The Hartford's data center in Hartford will lose their jobs and some 280 others will be offered positions in IBM” ( “Outsourcing affects nearly 400 jobs” 1). I do not see how the company is trying to help employees because some of the 400 are either fired or pushed to a different company regardless of individual preferences. Just because 280 is larger than 110 does not mean that the 110 workers should be condoned. But then again, several other companies are continually following the capitalistic mentality of the majority of American companies. This form of hiring and firing is the direct result of globalization with its impetus of new technology.
The opposite is true of communism. Marxist ideology, in particular, is skewed to the proletariat, in another words, the working class. His theories are being used in many countries today under the heading of socialism. While many nations have adapted only partial socialistic programs, they are less inclined to displace workers for company profits. At the same time, the events I have described concerning devaluation of US currency and displacement of US workers, for example, echo Marx's prediction that capitalism will bring its own demise and those countries may turnout to be communist. This is a quote from a passage in The Communist Manifesto remarked in Wikipedia Encyclopedia stating Marx's belief:
Constant revolutionising of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones... All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is profaned, and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses his real conditions of life, and his relations with his kind (1).
And this concept may be true since“modern capitalism has always dealt with its cards unevenly” ( Downsizing of America 223).
This is just one of the many unpleasant scenarios that can trouble US workers if our work methods are not properly dealt with in a favorable way for us. If outsourcing goes to the extreme, workers can be devastated by job loss by having to relocate to an inferior residence that can be a “terrible and stressful toll” on “husbands, wives, and children” ( The Downsizing of American 254).The children and other family members will have to de-enroll from their existing schools, friends and relatives. In addition, the unemployed ones will not be able to support other unfortunate ones through volunteering and donations (that means a meager or zero monetary support for the needy, especially the jobless individuals). Instead, they would have to rely on public assistance, superfluously increasing the public debt for the government. This includes the negation of medical benefits that can impair the ill and even worse, reduce America 's population. Thirdly, the displaced ones will be significantly spending less on groceries, vacations, holidays, and luxury items, and cashing in their IRAs or taking second home loans, weakening the economy, businesses and the American currency value. Lastly, most parents will not be able to support education systems when they cannot afford tuition. Children will grow to be insignificant as no education institution is able or willing to support them due to financial considerations, adding to the other various problems. American degrees will be considered inferior like the rest of its components.
The aforementioned scenarios would further decrease America 's education rates, graduation, and success rates ( The Downsizing of America 255 ). These significant drawbacks can cause a severe economic depression that is unimaginable. America's integrity would plummet as “faith, trust, loyalty, fair play compassion and other maxims we believed constituted America's soul [will] been trashed” ( The Downsizing of America 237). That means this country would no longer be thought of as the “land of great opportunities” or “land of the free” or “the land of prosperity.” Foreigners, in particular, will be hesitant and/or scared to travel to America , especially since their countries are booming, reducing tourism rates in the US .
We have to also ponder about America's borders as this country could unwittingly further weaken its economic borders by virtue of information exchange as a result of sharing technology and sensitive data. This issue can arise as outsource employees would have to know confidential information to do their jobs, which is definitely happening due to meager legal protections abroad (as previously mentioned). Then there will be a bigger immigration matter.
What if other countries become superpowers like the US or superior to us, which is another issue adding to the aforementioned potential problems. Henry Kissinger, U.S. Secretary of State and diplomat, believes that China 's rise is unavoidable and intractable due its trade surplus, largely contributed to by the United States (Graham-Harrison 1). India is also following China 's path, expelling the US 's global position even more. Kissinger believes that this can create a global conflict if matters are not properly dealt with now. The types of potential consequences can be severer than domestic problems: an arms race between many countries over global status, especially since countries as China and India have nuclear weapons. Consequently, we would have no global unity, inconceivably diminishing this world instead of improving it. Are these the types of horrifying situations we want?
A positive alternative exists – which is less severe than the possible automatic demise of capitalism -- that can actually save America 's economic system while maintaining its work force in an impartial way. The solution is to implement secondary schools called 21 st century schools, which is named in such a way since these institutes are tailored to resolve US workers' issues in the 21 st century, that will provide job placement to students 16 and older in corresponding fields that range from entry-level to advanced positions, depending on the students' skills. The schools are geared towards the public, which is why they are considered vocational public schools. They will be incentive based -- i.e., allocating government or privately funded scholarships and grants to US students so that they have minimal financial burden and commit to fulfilling the specific course. New philanthropic programs are routinely being established in the U.S. , so that philanthropists, including Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates, Apple Computers Chairman Steve Jobs, and Carnegie Mellon Foundation, can provide money to different programs. These donors will also assist in implementing their own ideas to utopian schools and provide funding accordingly.
Furthermore, these schools will hold beginner, intermediate, and advanced courses, depending on individuals' ages and experience, that combine the assigned subjects -- math, science, and technology -- instead of an individual course for each subject, which is time consuming and inefficient. The course will run for 2 hours long every week for 3 months in the morning, daytime, or in the evening timings, to accommodate working individuals and students during the fall and summer season. The finish date of a course will depend on each student's needs and skills; for example, students in dire need of jobs due to personal issues can take a compressed course that finish in a short time frame. On the other hand, a teenager might want to take a regular course in order to enhance his or her work abilities while attending high school at the same time. In spring, 21 st century schools will fixate on improving and/or updating their curriculum to meet requirements of existing or new US companies, enrolled students, and technological advancements. This is a necessary allowance in order to maintain the institution's reputation and logistics, and vacation period for faculty and other staff workers. The institution does not provide a time limit in job placement for individuals, instead assists graduates in finding work indefinitely. Individual graduates will be provided with a certain degree of paid job training from his or her assigned company depending on his or her abilities. Job training is necessary for the graduates in order for them to retain their skills from the vocational schools and long-term viability in the workplace.
The educational reforms I suggest also include strategic placement of these new institutions throughout the 50 states in the US . This way most unemployed individuals and other types of job seekers can be serviced all over America , and companies would not be short of workers. Significantly, these institutions will have affiliated job-related companies, average and reputable companies, and prestigious universities like New York University , Harvard, and Princeton . They will work in conjunction with each other in developing and updating curricula to provide essential studies. This is an important step for the institutions to gain worldly experience necessary for their students' success. In essence, the objective of 21st century schools is to help employees in being more efficient and productive in assisting American organizations that especially engage in outsourcing. In other words, these types of schools are geared towards generating a win/win situation for US CEOS and employees.
That does not mean we have to completely discontinue working with foreign countries; instead we can still continue transferring selective work functions to foreign countries, a practice starting in the 1980s, when a limited type of outsourcing took place that was not as risky or detracting for America (Encyclopedia of Small Business 1) as today's methods are. This way the countries that heavily rely on US's exports and services will maintain themselves. We do not want a scenario where countries like the Philippines and India have a “literal collapse with a steady fall in GDP and stock prices,” especially since they are habitual in milking “America and Europe” (Baliga 1). After all, America needs to be altruistic serving as a remaining global superpower. So the question is if the US is willing to change and invest in its future in a beneficial way that would protect its people and economy. A utopian idea like these new schools will allow the United States to have a sense of global security and preserve its environment.
As we have already noticed, outsourcing is a popular and temporary vehicle for US employers to save money in all aspects of their corporations, especially since the years between 2002 and 2004. Technological advancements, specifically the growth of the Internet, have significantly propelled United States ' employers to further engage in a partisan method of outsourcing. This led to the expansion of outsourcing into subcategories, specifically offshoring, and its utilization in various work domains. Foreign nations, in particular, are enjoying the rewards of US outsourcing by working long and rigorous hours, while strengthening their individual economy and social atmosphere more and more. Nevertheless, outsourcing contains a major negative side that is continually counteracting its positive aspects by posing financial risks, job insecurities, and misidentification of the United States goals. US employees are slowly drifting away, along with their job functions and corporations to especially the Indians and Chinese, creating the worst case scenarios for us. Likewise, these negative factors are noticed in the personal interviews with US residents, rather than the ones with foreign workers. That is why a rectification is necessary in American policies in order to protect this country from the potential predominance of rising nations that we nurture. An ideal solution is to establish an institute called 21 st Century Schools in all fifty states of the United States , servicing large amounts of diverse employees. Thus, this utopian organization can fulfill its objective in assisting outsourced corporations and preserving the essential components of this country. And since this is a refreshing idea, pessimistic individuals may judge the institutes because anything new is questioned until some results are generated from it. That is why it is important for officials, especially the political ones, and the public to support the new institutes for them to be effective. So let us all work together in creating a better American by establishing 21 st century schools; as our 28 th President, Woodrow T. Wilson stated, “America was established not to create wealth but to realize a vision, to realize an ideal – to discover and maintain liberty among men” ( ThinkExist.com Quotations 1).
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