List of Plates                                
 
Lecture 13, 3/10/04: “Cluny”
In addition to the accounts in Snyder or Stokstad, useful discussions of the architecture and art associated with Cluny and related Cluniac monasteries and churches may be found in Roger Stalley, Early Medieval Architecture (Oxford, 1999), pp. 167-75; Kenneth J. Conant, Carolingian – Romanesque Architecture, 800-1200 (Harmondsworth, 1959), pp. 80-4 (on Cluny II), and pp. 107-25 (on Cluny III; this book is on Prof. Landau’s reserve for the course, “History of Architecture,” V43.0018); and M. F. Hearn, Romanesque Sculpture (Ithaca, NY, 1981), pp. 102-18 (on the ambulatory capitals), 132-39 (on the West portal sculpture).
214. Plan of the monastery of Cluny, showing the First Romanesque style church known as Cluny II, the “Galilee Porch,” and the chapter house, built ca. 955-1000 under abbots Abbots Mayeul and Odilo
215. Plan of the monastery of Cluny showing Cluny III, built ca. 1088-1130 and later under Abbots Hugh and Peter the Venerable; the monk Gunzo was the principal designer of the church
216. South Transept of Cluny III, exterior
217. South Transept of Cluny III, interior
218. Cluny III (1088-1130 and later), plan and elevation
219. Cluny III, reconstruction of the exterior from the East
220. Cluny III, reconstruction model of the church and monastery in the 12th century
221. Cluny III, reconstruction of the nave interior
222. Cluny III, nave elevation
223. Cluniac church of Paray-le-Monial (also in Burgundy, near Cluny), ca. 1100, exterior showing westwork
224. Cluniac church of Paray-le-Monial, interior of the nave and crossing
225. Cluniac church of Paray-le-Monial, interior toward the choir and apse
226. Cluny III, reconstruction of the narthex and the main tympanum of the West portal
227. Cluny III, reconstruction of the main tympanum of the West portal with Christ in Majesty, Evangelist Symbols and Angels, and the Three Maries at the Tomb and Way to Emmaus (on the lintel), sculpture ca. 1115?
228. St. Peter, from the spandrels of the arches of the West portal of Cluny III, ca. 1115?
229. The Ascension, tympanum of the Cluniac church of Charlieu (in Burgundy, near Cluny), early 12th century
230. Reconstruction of the ambulatory of Cluny III
231. The Fall of Man, marble, ca. 1100, detail of a capital from one of the piers at the beginning of the ambulatory, Cluny III
232. The Fall of Man (another view), marble, ca. 1100, detail of a capital from one of the piers at the beginning of the ambulatory, Cluny III
233. The Fall of Man (yet another view), marble, ca. 1100, detail of a capital from one of the piers at the beginning of the ambulatory, Cluny III
234. The Four Rivers of Paradise, marble, ca. 1100, detail of a capital from one of the columns in the ambulatory, Cluny III
235. The First Tone of Plain Chant (Gregorian Chant), marble, ca. 1100, detail of a capital from one of the columns in the ambulatory, Cluny III
236. Cluny III, reconstruction of the apse
237. Christ in Majesty with the Apostles/ Martyrdoms of SS Lawrence and Blaise/ Standing Saints, early 12th century, from the apse of the Cluniac priory of Berze-la-Ville (about 7 miles from Cluny)
238. Christ in Majesty Giving the Law to St. Peter, early 12th century, detail of the apse of the Cluniac priory of Berze-la-Ville
239. Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, early 12th century, detail of the apse (on the side) of the Cluniac priory of Berze-la-Ville
240. The Pentecost, from the Cluny Lectionary, illumination on parchment, made at the monastery of SS Peter and Paul, Cluny (Cluny III) in the early 12th century
names/terms

Church of SS Peter and Paul, Cluny
Cluny I (909-16)
Cluny II (955-1000)
Cluny III (1088-1130 and later)
Duke William of Aquitaine
Important abbots of Cluny:

Mayeul (ca. 963-94; Cluny II)
Odilo (ca. 994-1048; Cluny II)
Hugh (ca. 1049-1109; Cluny III)
Peter the Venerable (1122-56; Cluny III)

Galilee Porch
chapter house
Gregorian chant (plain chant)
tripartite elevation
triforium
Pythagoras (ancient Greece); musical numbers
Cardinal Virtues (Prudence, Temperance, Fortitude, Justice)

Lecture 14, 3/22/04: "La Madeleine, Vézelay."
In addition to the readings in Snyder and Stokstad (and Peter Low’s article), you may find useful the account in M. F. Hearn, Romanesque Sculpture (Ithaca, NY, 1981), 163-70.
241. La Madeleine, Vézelay, ca. 1120-32, interior of nave looking east
242. La Madeleine, Vézelay, plan of the Romanesque church built ca. 1120-32
243. La Madeleine, Vézelay, interior of the narthex; all sculpture dates to ca. 1120-32; the narthex itself was probably built in the 1140s
244. Annunciation/Visitation/Nativity/Adoration of the Magi, South tympanum of the narthex portal of La Madeleine, Vézelay
245. Way to Emmaus/Supper at Emmaus/Post-Resurrection Appearances of Christ to the Apostles, North tympanum of the narthex portal of La Madeleine, Vézelay
246. Central tympanum with the Pentecost and elements of Ephesians 2: 11-22, narthex portal of La Madeleine, Vézelay
247. Christ Between SS Peter and Paul, detail of the central tympanum, narthex portal of La Madeleine, Vézelay
248. Detail of left half of the central tympanum
249. Detail of right half of the central tympanum
250. Detail of the left and right jambs, narthex portal of La Madeleine, Vézelay
251. John the Baptist on a Column, detail of the trumeau of the narthex portal
252. John the Baptist on a Column, detail of the trumeau of the narthex portal
253. Cripples, Jews and Cynocephali, detail of archivolts on the left side of the central tympanum, narthex portal, La Madeleine, Vézelay
254. Panotii, detail of the right lintel of the narthex portal, La Madeleine, Vézelay
255. Ethiopians, detail of an archivolt on the right side of the central tympanum, narthex portal, La Madeleine, Vézelay
256. Map of the World, showing the Monstrous Races, from a psalter, illumination on parchment, ca. 1260 (Gothic)
257. Monstrous Races, from a crusader handbook, ink on parchment, 12th century, French
258. Samson Wrestling with the Lion, nave capital, La Madeleine, Vézelay
259. The Mystic Mill, nave capital, La Madeleine, Vézelay
260. St. Benedict Raising a Dead Child, nave capital, La Madeleine, Vézelay
261. Rape of Ganymede, nave capital, La Madeleine, Vézelay
names/terms
Autun
First Crusade, 1095, called by the Cluniac Pope Urban II
Labors of the Months and Signs of the Zodiac
Abbot Renaud (1106-24)
Lecture 15, 3/24/04: “Gislebertus hoc fecit?”: St. Lazare, Autun/ The Margins of Romanesque Society: Corbels
In addition to the readings in Snyder and Stokstad, you may find useful the discussion of the sculpture at Autun in Linda Seidel, Legends in Limestone: Lazarus, Gislebertus, and the Cathedral of Autun (Chicago and London, 1999). For Autun; for the medieval portal as site of ecclesiastical justice; and for the profane imagery on corbels and other forms of medieval sculpture, see Rolf Toman, ed., Romanesque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting (Cologne, 1997), pp. 274-77, 331-33; 324-27; and 341-44.
262. Plan of the town of Autun, showing the collegiate church of St. Lazare, built ca. 1120-30s under Etienne de Bagé, Bishop of Autun, and the Carolingian cathedral of St. Nazaire
263. Plan of the collegiate church of St. Lazare, Autun, built ca. 1120-30s under Etienne de Bagé, Bishop of Autun
264. Reconstruction drawing of the marble tomb of St. Lazarus of Bethany that stood in the apse of St. Lazare, Autun
265. Plans of the two churches over and near the tomb of St. Lazarus in Bethany (the Holy Land), built in the 11th-12th centuries
266. Gislebertus?, The Last Judgment, tympanum of the West portal (the canons’ doorway), St. Lazare Autun, ca. 1130
267. Gislebertus?, Christ of the Last Judgment, detail of the tympanum, West portal, St. Lazare, Autun
268. Last Judgment, mosaics in the church of Sta. Maria Assunta, Torcello, 11th-12th century
269. St. Peter, the Saints, and the Blessed in Paradise, detail of the tympanum of the West portal, St. Lazare, Autun
270. Crusader, Pilgrim to Rome, Pilgrim to Santiago, detail of the lintel of the West portal, St. Lazare, Autun
271. The Weighing of Souls/The Damned/The Dead Rising from their Graves, detail of the tympanum and lintel, West portal, St. Lazare, Autun
272. The Damned Dead Rising from their Graves, detail of the lintel, West portal, St. Lazare, Autun
273. The Damned Dead Rising from their Graves, detail of the lintel, West portal, St. Lazare, Autun
274. Christ of the Last Judgment, detail of the tympanum, West portal, St. Lazare, Autun
275. Seals of Humbert and Etienne de Bagé, Bishops of Autun
276. “Gislebertus hoc fecit,” detail of inscription at the feet of Christ on the tympanum, West portal, St. Lazare, Autun
277. Gofridus?, capital with the Adoration of the Magi, from the ambulatory of St. Pierre, Chauvigny, later 12th century
278. St. Lazare, Autun, interior of nave toward the East
279. St. Lazare, Autun, detail of nave elevation
280. St. Lazare, Autun, exterior of North transept
281. Porte d’Arroux, the Roman city gate in Autun
282. Reconstruction of the North transept portal, sculpture ca. 1130, St. Lazare, Autun
283. Gislebertus?, Eve, from the lintel of the North transept portal, St. Lazare, Autun
284. Eve, detail
285. Gallo-Roman statue of Venus, terra cotta, from near Autun
286. Jaca Cathedral (Aragon, Spain), tympanum showing prostrate penitent, late11th century
287. Gislebertus?, The Flight Into Egypt, capital from the nave of St. Lazare, Autun, ca. 1130
288. Gallo-Roman statuette of the agricultural goddess, Epona, terra cotta, from near Autun
289. The Flight of Simon Magus, capital from the nave of St. Lazare, Autun, ca. 1130
290. The Fall of Simon Magus, capital from the nave of St. Lazare, Autun, ca. 1130
291. The Suicide of Judas, capital from the nave of St. Lazare, Autun, ca. 1130
292. The Donation of a Church, capital from the nave of St. Lazare, Autun, ca. 1130
293. The Dream of the Magi, capital from the nave of St. Lazare, Autun, ca. 1130
294. Jacob Wrestling with the Angel/ Jacob Laying the Foundation Stone for the Pillar at Bethel, capital from the nave (the back of the trumeau) of St. Lazare, Autun, ca. 1130
295. St. Lazare, Autun, plan showing locations of sculpture
296. Map of the Holy Land, showing pilgrimage destinations (including Bethany, Bethel, and Bethlehem) in relation to Jerusalem
297. Wide-eyed classicizing corbel figure, from the Porte Miégeville, St. Sernin, Toulouse, ca. 1115
298. Woman Twisting Her Neck, corbel from St. Etienne, Cahors (France), early 12th century
299. Grimacing Man and Screaming Woman, corbels from St. Etienne, Cahors (France), early 12th century
300. Woman with Dice, corbel from St. Nicholas, Civray (France), early 12th century
301. Acrobat; Musician, corbels from Notre Dame, Surgeres (France), early 12th century
302. Beggars, corbels from St. Barthelemy, Matha Marestay (France), early 12th century
303. Embracing Lovers, corbel from Maillezais (France), 12th century
304. Exhibitionists, corbels from San Pedro de Tejada (Spain), 12th century
305. Man with Erection, corbel from St. Marin, Fromista (Spain), late 11th century
306. Sheela-na-gig (Ugly as Sin), corbel from Kilpeck church (England), 11th/12th century
names/terms
Martha and Mary of Bethany (Mary Magdalen)
Inscription around Christ’s mandorla at St. Lazare Autun: “I alone dispose of all things and crown the deserving; those whom crime binds are punished according to my judgment.”
Disponere (Lat.) = “dispose”
Judicial ordeal
Rite of penance
Liturgical cursing
Lecture 16, 3/29/04: “Romanesque Attitudes Toward Art: Bernard of Clairvaux and the Cistercians.”
In addition to the readings in Snyder and Stokstad, you man find useful the discussions of Cistercian art and architecture in Rolf Toman, ed., Romanesque: Architecture, Painting, Sculpture (Cologne, 1997), pp. 134-35, 170-173; and Roger Stalley, Early Medieval Architecture (Oxford, 1999), pp. 176-82
307. Cistercian monastery of Fontenay, built 1139-47, plan
308. Fontenay, monastic complex from the East
309. Fontenay, façade of the church
310. Fontenay, interior of nave looking West
311. Fontenay, interior of nave looking East
312. Fontenay, detail of nave wall
313. Fontenay, the monastic cloister
314. Cistercian monastery of Le Thoronet, built ca. 1160-80, interior of nave looking East
315. Benedictine monastery of St. Michel de Cuxa, S. France, ca. 1140, view of the cloister (partially reconstructed at The Cloisters, Fort Tryon Park, NY)
316. Naked Dancing Horn-blower and Devouring Mouths, capital from the cloister of St. Michel de Cuxa, ca. 1140
317. Sirens and Mermaids, capital from the cloister of St. Michel de Cuxa, ca. 1140
318. Squatting Apes and Men, capital from the cloister of St. Michel de Cuxa, ca. 1140
319. Squatting Men and Apes, capital from the cloister of St. Michel de Cuxa, ca. 1140
320. Initial “R” with a Knight Fighting a Dragon, from a manuscript of Gregory the Great’s Moralia in Job, illumination on parchment, made in 1111 at the Cistercian monastery of Cîteaux
321. Initial “Q” with a Hawking Nobleman, from a manuscript of Gregory the Great’s Moralia in Job, illumination on parchment, made in 1111 at the Cistercian monastery of Cîteaux
322. Initial “Q” with a Layman Fighting a Dragon, from a manuscript of Gregory the Great’s Moralia in Job, illumination on parchment, made in 1111 at the Cistercian monastery of Cîteaux
323. Initial “P” with Human-Animal-Hybrid Combat, from a manuscript of Gregory the Great’s Moralia in Job, illumination on parchment, made in 1111 at the Cistercian monastery of Cîteaux
324. Initial “Q” with Monks Splitting Wood, from a manuscript of Gregory the Great’s Moralia in Job, illumination on parchment, made in 1111 at the Cistercian monastery of Cîteaux
325. Initial “Q” with Monk Scything Grain, from a manuscript of Gregory the Great’s Moralia in Job, illumination on parchment, made in 1111 at the Cistercian monastery of Cîteaux
326. Initial “M” with Monks Folding Laundry, from a manuscript of Gregory the Great’s Moralia in Job, illumination on parchment, made in 1111 at the Cistercian monastery of Cîteaux
327. Initial “I” with a Monk and a Lay Brother Cutting Wood, from a manuscript of Gregory the Great’s Moralia in Job, illumination on parchment, made in 1111 at the Cistercian monastery of Cîteaux
328. Tree of Jesse, illumination on parchment, from a manuscript made ca. 1125 at the Cistercian monastery of Cîteaux
329. Tree of Jesse and Old Testament Types of the Virgin’s Purity, illumination on parchment, from a manuscript made ca. 1130 at the Cistercian monastery of Cîteaux
names/terms

Champagne
Cistercian Order – founded 1098; rule approved 1119
--Robert of Molesme; Alberic; Stephen Harding
Cîteaux
Bernard of Clairvaux (his letter of ca. 1125 to William, Abbot of St. Thierry is known as the Apologia)
Pope Gregory the Great (late 6th-early 7th century), Moralia in Job (commentary on the Old Testament book of Job)
Tree of Jesse (derived from the genealogy of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew and from a prophecy concerning the messiah in the Old Testament book of Isaiah): “And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch shall
grow out of his roots . . .” (from Isaiah)
historiated initial

Lecture 17, 3/31/04: “Pope vs. Emperor: Art of the Holy Roman Empire, 11th-12th Centuries.”
In addition to the readings in Snyder and Stokstad, you may find useful the discussion of German Romanesque architecture and metalwork in Rolf Toman, ed., Romanesque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting (Cologne, 1997), pp. 32-73, esp. pp. 46-9 on Speyer Cathedral, and 354-5 (on metalwork); and Peter Lasko, Ars Sacra: 800-1200 (Harmondsworth, 1972), pp. 156-68, 187-88 (on metalwork).
330. Imperial Cathedral of Speyer, begun 1030-60; remodeled 1077-1106 (and later) under Emperor Henry IV; reconstruction of the original interior
331. Speyer Cathedral, begun 1030-60; remodeled 1077-1106 (and later); interior of the nave as remodeled under Henry IV (partly restored)
332. Speyer Cathedral, plan
333. Speyer Cathedral, aerial view (some portions of the building from the late 12th century and later)
334. Speyer Cathedral, exterior from the East
335. Speyer Cathedral, detail of the apse
336. Tomb Slab of Rudolf of Swabia, cast bronze (originally gilt, with inlaid eyes), after 1080, choir of Merseberg Cathedral
337. Tomb Slab of Rudolf of Swabia, detail
338. Tomb Slab of Rudolf of Swabia, view showing stone base
339. Lion Monument, cast bronze (originally gilt), 1166, originally in front of the palace of Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, in Brunswick
340. Roger of Helmarshausen, Portable Altar for Abdinghof Abbey, detail showing the Martyrdom of St. Blaise, silver, niello, copper, and gilt bronze over wood, ca. 1100
341. Roger of Helmarshausen, Portable Altar of Henry of Werl, Bishop of Paderborn, made for Paderborn Cathedral, silver, partly gilt, niello, gilt bronze, gems and pearls over wood, ca. 1100
342. Roger of Helmarshausen, Portable Altar of Henry of Werl, Bishop of Paderborn, detail of top of altar
343. Roger of Helmarshausen, Portable Altar of Henry of Werl, Bishop of Paderborn, detail of enthroned apostle (silver and niello)
344. Rainer of Huy, Baptismal Font for Notre-Dame-des-Fonts (Liège Font), commissioned by Abbot Hellinus, cast bronze, 1118 (Mosan art)
345. Rainer of Huy, Baptismal Font for Notre-Dame-des-Fonts (Liège Font), cast bronze, 1118 (Mosan art), detail of the Baptism of Christ
346. Rainer of Huy, Baptismal Font for Notre-Dame-des-Fonts (Liège Font), cast bronze, 1118 (Mosan art), detail of John the Baptist Preaching
347. Rainer of Huy, Baptismal Font for Notre-Dame-des-Fonts (Liège Font), cast bronze, 1118 (Mosan art), detail of John the Evangelist Baptizing the Philospher Crato
348. Guda, the Scribe and Artist, artist’s self-portrait in a collection of sermons, illumination on parchment, ca. 1150
349. Pope Gregory the Great; the Scribe “R,” the Illuminator Hildebertus, and his Assistant Everwinus, dedication page of a Sacramentary (Mass book), illumination on parchment, ca. 1140
350. Hildebertus and Everwinus, portraits of the artists by Hildebertus, in a manuscript of St. Augustine’s City of God, ink on parchment, ca. 1130-40
351. The Stavelot Triptych, gilt bronze, silver, and cloisonné and champlevé enamel, made ca. 1156-58 for Abbot Wibald of Stavelot Abbey (Belgium) (Mosan art), view of late 11th century Byzantine cloisonné enamel reliquaries in the closed position
352. The Stavelot Triptych, gilt bronze, silver, and cloisonné and champlevé enamel, made ca. 1156-58 for Abbot Wibald of Stavelot Abbey (Belgium) (Mosan art), view of late 11th century Byzantine cloisonné enamel reliquaries in the open position
353. Battle of Constantine and Maxentius (Battle of the Milvian Bridge, 312), champlevé enamel, from the left wing of the Stavelot Triptych
354. St. Helena Supervises the Discovery of the True Cross, champlevé enamel, from the right wing of the Stavelot Triptych
355. St. Helena Supervises the Proving of the True Cross, champlevé enamel, from the right wing of the Stavelot Triptych
names/terms
investiture; Investiture Controversy
Pope Gregory VII (r. 1063-85)
Double bay system with alternating supports; major supports, minor supports
Heraldry; heraldic symbol
Niello
Theophilus (Roger of Helmarshausen?), On Divers Arts, ca. 1120
The True Cross
Lecture 18, 4/5/04: “Art in the Campania/ Rome Reborn.”
In addition to the readings in Snyder and Stokstad, you may find useful the discussion of Montecassino, Sant’Angelo in Formis, and Romanesque Rome in Otto Demus and Max Hirmer, Romanesque Mural Painting (New York, 1968), pp. 79-83, 294-98; and C. R. Dodwell, The Pictorial Arts of the West, 800-1200 (New Haven and London, 1993), pp. 157-61, 165-71.
356. Reconstruction of the Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino, rebuilt ca. 1075 under Abbot Desiderius (later Pope Victor III)
357. Sant’Angelo in Formis, Capua, built and renovated ca. 1072-85 under Abbot Desiderius, view of facade of church
358. Sant’Angelo in Formis, Capua, built and renovated ca. 1072-85 under Abbot Desiderius, nave looking toward the apse (east); all frescoes ca. 1085
359. Christ in Majesty with Archangels, St. Benedict, and Abbot Desiderius, main apse of Sant’Angelo in Formis, Capua, ca. 1085
360. Abbot Desiderius as Donor, from the main apse of Sant’Angelo in Formis
361. Christ in Majesty, detail from the main apse of Sant’Angelo in Formis
362. Sant’Angelo in Formis, nave looking west
363. Prophet (Malachi), fresco in the nave of Sant’Angelo in Formis
364. The Crucifixion, fresco in the nave of Sant’Angelo in Formis
365. The Betrayal/Arrest of Christ, fresco in the nave of Sant’Angelo in Formis
366. The Last Judgment, west wall of Sant’Angelo in Formis
367. The Damned Pushed into Hell, detail of the Last Judgment on the west wall of Sant’Angelo in Formis
368. San Clemente, Rome, rebuilt after 1084, nave looking east
369. San Clemente, Rome, view of the schola cantorum
370. The Cross as the Tree of Life, apse mosaic, San Clemente, Rome, ca. 1128
371. Prophet Isaiah, mosaic from the triumphal arch (before the apse), San Clemente, Rome, ca. 1128
372. Tree of Life/Crucifixion, detail of the apse mosaic, San Clemente, Rome
373. Stag Subduing a Serpent (at the base of the Cross), detail of the apse mosaic, San Clemente, Rome
374. Woman Feeding Fowl, detail of the apse mosaic, San Clemente, Rome
375. Sta. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, built ca. 1120-30, façade
376. Sta. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, engraving of the interior
377. Virgin and Christ Enthroned (The Triumph of the Virgin), apse mosaic in Sta. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, commissioned and installed ca. 1130-43 under Pope Innocent III
378. Virgin and Christ Enthroned (The Triumph of the Virgin), detail of apse mosaic, Sta. Maria in Trastevere, Rome
names/terms
Abbot Desiderius of Monte Cassino = Pope Victor III (r. 1086-88)
Cosmati work
Schola cantorum
Pope Innocent III (1130-43)
Trabeation; trabeated arcade
Lecture 19, 4/7/04: “Romanesque Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany”
In addition to the readings in Snyder and Stokstad, you may find useful the discussion of Romanesque sculpture in M. F. Hearn, Romanesque Sculpture (Ithaca NY, 1981), pp. 85-98, 155-63; and G. H. Crichton, Romanesque Sculpture in Italy (London, 1954), pp. 3-40; and Rolf Toman, ed., Romanesque (Cologne, 1997), pp. 74-103, 300-02 for architecture and sculpture.
Lombardy:
379. Sant’Ambrogio, Milan, brick, late11th-early 12th centuries, vaults after 1117, aerial view of atrium, towers, and church
380. Sant’Ambrogio, Milan, another view
381. Sant’Ambrogio, Milan, façade of the church
382. Sant’Ambrogio, Milan, interior of the nave showing the galleries and ribbed groin vaults
Emilia-Romagna:
383. Henry IV’s Submission (in 1077) to Countess Mathilda at Canossa, miniature in a manuscript of the Life of Mathilda of Tuscany, illumination on parchment, 1115
384. Cathedral of San Gimignano, Modena, built 1099-1120 under the patronage of Countess Mathilda of Tuscany and the Bishop of Modena; Lanfrancus was the master mason, Wiligelmus (Wilgelmo) executed the sculpture ca. 1106-20
385. Cathedral of San Gimignano, Modena, detail of the lions and columns of the Lombard porch (projecting porch portal), probably designed by Lanfrancus and Wiligelmus
386. Wiligelmus, Plaque with Inscription Held by the Prophets Enoch and Elijah; Ignudo Holding a Torch, façade of San Gimignano, Modena
387. Wiligelmus, Creation of Adam; Creation of Eve; Fall of Man, Genesis frieze on the façade of San Gimignano, Modena
388. Wiligelmus, The Expulsion from Paradise; Adam and Eve Tending a Tree, Genesis frieze on the façade of San Gimignano, Modena
389. Wiligelmus, Story of Cain and Abel, Genesis frieze on the façade of San Gimignano, Modena
390. Wiligelmus, Story of Noah, Genesis frieze on the facade of San Gimignano, Modena
391. San Zeno, Verona, ca. 1138, built under the patronage of Countess Mathilda of Tuscany and Bishop Tebaldus of Verona; sculpture by Nicholaus (Niccolo) and his assistant Guglielmus (Guglielmo)
392. Lombard porch and sculptural friezes, façade of San Zeno, Verona, ca. 1138
393. Nicholaus (Niccolo) and assistants, St. Zeno Gives the City Standard to the Veronese Infantry (Peasant Army) and Cavalry (Nobility); Life and Miracles of St. Zeno, tympanum of the façade of San Zeno, Verona, ca. 1138
394. Lombard porch and sculptural friezes, façade of San Zeno, Verona, ca. 1138
395. Nicholaus, Genesis (Creation) Scenes; Scenes of King Theodoric the Ostrogoth, frieze on the façade of San Zeno, Verona, ca. 1138
396. Nicholaus and Guglielmus, New Testament Scenes; Scenes of Hildebrand, frieze on the façade of San Zeno, Verona, ca. 1138
397. Bronze doors of San Zeno, Verona, New Testament scenes on the left door from the earlier 12th century; Old Testament scenes and scenes from the life of San Zeno on the right door from the later 12th century
398. Flagellation of Christ; Crucifixion, panels from the bronze doors of San Zeno, Verona, earlier 12th century
399. Sacrifice of Isaac, panel from the bronze doors of San Zeno, Verona, later 12th century
Tuscany:
400. Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence, ca. 1059-1150, exterior
401. Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence, ca. 1059-1150, exterior showing apse
402. Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence, detail of upper zones of exterior
403. Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence, interior showing apse
404. Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence, detail of interior
405. Pisa, Cathedral begun 1062-3, Baptistery begun 1153, Campanile begun 1174 (all structures finished in the Gothic period)
406. Cathedral, Baptistery, and Campanile, Pisa, aerial view
407. Pisa, Cathedral, begun 1062-3 by Master Buscheto; façade by Master Rainaldo, nave looking east
408. Pisa, Cathedral, plan
409. Pisa, Cathedral, façade (by Master Rainaldo and others)
410. Pisa, Baptistery, begun 1153, exterior
411. Jerusalem, reconstruction of the early Christian (4th century) buildings associated with the Passion and death of Jesus, including the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and the Anastasis Rotunda (built on the site of Jesus’ tomb and resurrection)
412. Pisa, Campanile, begun 1174
413. Workshop of Master Biduino, Portal of San Leonardo al Frigido, Massa Carrara, marble (including spolia), ca. 1175
414. Workshop of Master Biduino, Portal of San Leonardo al Frigido, Massa Carrara, detail of the Annunciation
415. Workshop of Master Biduino, Portal of San Leonardo al Frigido, door jamb with St. Leonard Holding a Prisoner
416. Workshop of Master Biduino, Portal of San Leonardo al Frigido, capital with Bound and Captive Apes
417. Workshop of Master Biduino, Portal of San Leonardo al Frigido, architrave with Entry into Jerusalem and St. Leonard
418. Workshop of Master Biduino, Portal of San Leonardo al Frigido, architrave with Entry into Jerusalem and St. Leonard, detail of St. Leonard
names/terms
Mathilda, Countess of Tuscany
Communal government
Campanile (bell tower)
Lombard tower
Projecting porch portal/ Lombard porch
Ignudo; ignudi
Leonine hexameter
Theodoric the Ostrogothic (Ostrogothic king of Lombardy in the 6th century)
Central plan (i.e., for baptisteries)
Polychrome marble revetment
Lectures 20 & 21, 4/12/04 and 4/14/04: “Songs of Love and Glory: Aquitaine and Provence.”
In addition to the readings in Snyder and Stokstad, you may find useful the discussion of the sculpture at Angoulême and St.-Gilles-du-Gard in M. F. Hearn, Romanesque Sculpture (Ithaca, NY, 1981), pp. 181-5, 204-10; and for architecture and sculpture in Aquitaine and Provence, see Rolf Toman, ed., Romanesque (Cologne, 1997), pp. 152-9, 282-4.
Aquitaine (and neighboring regions)
419. St. Front, Périgueux, ca. 1120, exterior view showing domes and bell tower
420. St. Front, Périgueux, ca. 1120, aerial view, including apse
421. St. Front, Périgueux, ca. 1120, plan
422. San Marco, Venice, begun 1063, aerial view
423. San Marco, Venice, begun 1063, plan
424. St. Front, Périgueux, ca. 1120, interior looking east
425. San Marco, Venice, begun 1063, interior looking east
426. Cathedral of St. Pierre, Angoulême, constructed and façade sculpture executed a. 1115-36 under the patronage of Bishop Girard II, exterior
427. St. Pierre, Angoulême, plan
428. St. Pierre, Angoulême, interior looking east
429. St. Pierre, Angoulême, façade
430. St. Pierre, Angoulême, view of façade sculpture
431. St. Pierre, Angoulême, detail of The Ascension/Christ in Majesty and Angels
432. St. Pierre, Angoulême, detail of The Ascension/Christ in Majesty and Angels
433. St. Pierre, Angoulême, detail of the Cross as the Tree of Life and Angels
434. St. Pierre, Angoulême, frieze with Scene of Combat from the “Song of Roland” (?)
435. Church of St. Pierre-de-la-Tour, Aulnay, ca. 1130, view of South Transept portal
436. Church of St. Pierre-de-la-Tour, Aulnay, detail of archivolts of the South Transept portal
437. Church of St. Pierre-de-la-Tour, Aulnay, detail of outer (fourth) archivolt of the South Transept portal
438. Church of St. Pierre-de-la-Tour, Aulnay, detail of outer (fourth) archivolt of the South Transept portal
439. Throne of Wisdom, painted wood, later 12th century, from Auvergne
440. Throne of Wisdom, painted wood, later 12th century, from Auvergne, another view
441. Grave Plate of Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, champlevé enamel, 1151, made in Limoges
442. Christ in Majesty, book cover plaque, champlevé enamel, ca. 1150-75, made in Limoges
443. Martyrdom of Thomas à Becket, champlevé enamel house reliquary, ca. 1180-90, made in Limoges
444. Casket with Courtly Love Scenes, champlevé enamel, ca. 1180, made in Limoges
445. St.-Savin-sur-Gartempe, ca. 1100, nave interior
446. St.-Savin-sur-Gartempe, ca. 1100, view into aisle
447. St.-Savin-sur-Gartempe, ca. 1100, view paintings on nave vault
448. Construction of the Tower of Babel, painting on the nave vault, St.-Savin-sur-Gartempe
449. Torture of SS Savinus and Cyprian, painting on the crypt vault, St.-Savin-sur-Gartempe
Provence
450. St.-Gilles-du-Gard, west façade of the abbey church (Benedictine; reformed by Cluny), façade sculpture ca. 1150-75?
451. St.-Gilles-du-Gard, west façade of the abbey church, another view
452. St.-Gilles-du-Gard, apostles, columns, and frieze from the west façade
453. St.-Gilles-du-Gard, detail of apostles
454. St.Gilles-du-Gard, detail of apostles, columns, and pilasters
455. St.-Gilles-du-Gard, left (North) tympanum with the Adoration of the Magi/ The Angel Warning Joseph, frieze with the Entry into Jerusalem
456. St.-Gilles-du-Gard, frieze with the Betrayal/Arrest of Christ
457. St.-Gilles-du-Gard, frieze with the Flagellation
458. St.-Gilles-du-Gard, right (South) tympanum with the Crucifixion with Mary and John, Ecclesia and Synagoga, and Longinus (the Spearbearer), frieze with The Three Marys Buying Spices from the Apothecary and the Marys at the Tomb
459. Reconstruction of the Haram Al-Sharif (Noble Sacred Enclosure) in Jerusalem, showing the Dome of the Rock (right) and the Al-Aqsa Mosque, both originally constructed in the late 7th century
460. The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, originally constructed in the late 7th century
names/terms
Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204)
Courtly love; troubadours
Apostoleion (Byzantine church renovated in the 6th century that was the model for San Marco, Venice)
Song of Roland; chanson de geste
House reliquary
Thomas à Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury (martyred 1170)
Henry II Plantagenet of England
Hall church
Vitruvius, The Ten Books on Architecture (Roman)
Knights Templar; Hospitallers (Knights of St. John)
Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem = Crusader States
Henry of Bruys (burned at the stake in front of the church of St. Gilles between 1132-43)
Lecture 22, 4/19/04: “The Normans in France and England;” and Lecture 23, 4/21/04: “English Romanesque Art.”
In addition to the readings in Snyder and Stokstad, there is a useful discussion of the Bayeux Embroidery and other English, French, Italian and German works covered in class in Andreas Petzold, Romanesque Art (New York, 1995), pp. 71-99; and for the artist (and patron) in the Romanesque period see Petzold, pp. 25-43. Also useful on architecture and manuscripts are the essays and catalogue entries in Hayward Gallery, English Romanesque Art. 1066-1200 (London, 1984).
Norman (or should we say “Anglo-Norman”?) Art
461. King Edward the Confessor Speaks to Harold Godwinson, first scene of the Bayeux Embroidery, made ca. 1073-83, in Canterbury, England (?); commissioned by Odo, Bishop of Bayeux (?)
462. Harold and His Men Depart for Normandy; Fable of the Fox and Crow (in the lower margin)
463. Harold’s Ships En Route to Normandy; Fable of the Wolf and the Crane (in the lower margin)
464. Harold is Taken Prisoner by Count Guy (Guido); Hunters (in the lower margin)
465. Harold Swears an Oath to Duke William of Normandy; Winged Lions (in the upper margin)
466. Where a Clerk and Aelfgyva . . . ; Lewd Nude Man (in the lower margin)
467. The Death and Burial of Edward the Confessor
468. Harold Proclaimed King of England
469. The Appearance of Halley’s Comet; Harold Told of the Omen; The Invasion Prophesied (in the lower margin)
470. Invasion Preparations: Shipwrights at Work
471. Invasion Preparations: Armorers at Work
472. The Normans Cross the English Channel
473. Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, Feasting on the Eve of Battle
474. The Burning of Hastings; Casualties of War
475. The Battle of Hastings
476. The Norman Cavalry Charges the Anglo-Saxon Shield Wall
477. The Death of Harold
Norman Romanesque Architecture
478. Monastery of St.-Etienne, Caen, founded by William, Duke of Normandy, ca. 1064-77; vaults ca. 1120
479. St.-Etienne, Caen, detail of the façade
480. St.-Etienne, Caen, view of the nave from the South Transept
481. St.-Etienne, Caen, nave interior
482. St.-Etienne, Caen, nave elevation showing galleries and clerestory with wall passage
483. St.-Etienne, Caen, nave vaults, added ca. 1120
English Romanesque Architecture and Art
484. Durham Cathedral, ca. 1093-1133, plan
485. Durham Cathedral, nave looking east
486. Durham Cathedral, transverse section showing buttresses under the aisle roof
487. Castle Acre Priory (Cluniac), façade, ca. 1150
488. Castle Acre Priory, detail of the façade
489. Alexis Master, King Edmund as Almsgiver, full-page miniature in the Life of St. Edmund, illumination on parchment, commissioned by Abbot Anselm of Bury St. Edmunds monastery ca. 1120-30
490. Alexis Master, King Edmund Led to his Death, full-page miniature in the Life of St. Edmund, illumination on parchment
491. Dream of Henry I, miniatures in the illustrated Worcester Chronicle, ink on parchment, written and illuminated ca. 1130 at Worcester Abbey
492. The Three Orders of Society Visit Henry I in a Dream, miniatures in the illustrated Worcester Chronicle
names/terms
Normans = Norsemen
1066 – Battle of Hastings
William the Bastard, Duke of Normandy (William the Conqueror)
Harold Godwinson, Earl Godwin of Wessex
Opus anglicanum
Wall passage
Rib vault – sexpartite (6-part) vault
Ribs; webs
Saint’s life
Abbot Anselm of Bury St. Edmund’s (r. 1121-48)
Henry I, King of England (r. 1100-35)
Anglo-Norman
Lecture 24, 4/26/04: “Imaging the Romanesque Bible.”
In addition to the readings in Snyder and Stokstad, an exhaustive study of the illustration of the bible from the early Christian through Romanesque periods is Walter Cahn, Romanesque Bible Illumination (Ithaca, NY, 1982). For the Bury and Winchester Bibles see the relevant catalogue entries in Hayward Gallery, English Romanesque Art 1066-1200 (London, 1984).
(All works in this lecture are illumination on parchment)
493. Master of the Holy Majesty, Christ in Majesty, Stavelot Bible, made in the late 11th century for the Benedictine monastery of St. Remaclus; the scribes were Goderannus and Ernestus, two monks; Goderannus executed some of the illumination, along with three lay artists, including the Master of the Holy Majesty (Mosan Romanesque)
494. Allegory of the Children of Job, full-page miniature in the Floreffe Bible, made for the Premonstratensian monastery of Floreffe ca. 1166 (Mosan Romanesque)
495. The Transfiguration/The Last Supper, full-page miniature in the Floreffe Bible, made for the Premonstratensian monastery of Floreffe ca. 1166 (Mosan Romanesque)
496. Master Hugo, Prophet Amos, initial to the Book of Amos, Bury Bible, ca. 1135 (English Romanesque)
497. Master Hugo, Moses and Aaron Establishing the Law/ Moses Pointing Out Unclean Beasts, full-page miniature illustrating the Book of Deuteronomy, Bury Bible, ca. 1135 (English Romanesque)
498. Master Hugo, Initial “F” (the word “Frater”) with monkeys, mermaids, and a man with a wooden leg attempting to shave a hare, initial beginning the General Prologue to the Bible, Bury Bible, ca. 1135 (English Romanesque)
499. Master of the Leaping Figures, Initial “V” with the Calling of the Prophet Jeremiah, ca. 1155-60, Winchester Bible, made for use at the cathedral of Winchester, probably commissioned by Bishop Henry of Blois
500. Master of the Apocrypha Drawings, Design for the Full-Page Miniature Illustrating the Book of Maccabees, ca. 1155-60, Winchester Bible, detail of a king
501. Master of the Apocrypha Drawings, Design for the Full-Page Miniature Illustrating the Book of Maccabees, ca. 1155-60, Winchester Bible, detail of a battle
502. Master of the Morgan Leaf, ca. 1175-85 (painter), over the designs of the Master of the Apocrypha Drawings, ca. 1155-60, Scenes from the Life of David (the Morgan Leaf), full-page miniature in the Winchester Bible
503. Master of the Morgan Leaf (designer and painter), ca. 1175-85, Initial “R” Showing Jeremiah Before the Lord (the Prayer for Jeremiah), Winchester Bible
504. Master of the Genesis Initial (painter), ca. 1175-85, over the designs of the Master of the Leaping Figures (ca. 1155-60), Initial “B” with David Slaying the Bear; David Slaying the Lion, Winchester Bible
505. Master of the Genesis Initial (designer and painter), Initial “I” to the Book of Genesis, ca. 1175-85, Winchester Bible
506. Master of the Gothic Majesty, Initial “V” with the Calling of the Prophet Isaiah, Late 12th century, Winchester Bible
names/terms
Premonstratensian Order
--founded in the early 12thc by Norbert van Gennep
The Three Theological Virtues – Faith, Hope, Charity
The Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit
Lecture 25, 4/28/04: “Images and Visions:” Christina of Markyate and Hildegard of Bingen and Their Worlds
For Christina of Markyate and the St. Albans Psalter, see the wonderful website of the University of Aberdeen: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/stalbanspsalter/. There, you will find a discussion of Christina, the texts that make up the St. Albans Psalter, and reproductions and analysis of every image in the manuscript. The catalogue entry for the St. Albans Psalter in Hayward Gallery, English Romanesque Art 1066-1200 (London, 1984) provides a succinct overview of that manuscript.
507. Alexis Master, Scene from the Illustrated Life of St. Alexis, an Anglo-Norman French saint’s life, illumination on parchment, made in the 1120s for Christina of Markyate, and probably commissioned by Abbot Geoffrey of St. Albans; the illustrated Life of St. Alexis is one of four separate texts that make up the manuscript known as the St. Albans Psalter (English Romanesque)
508. Alexis Master, The Annunciation, illumination on parchment, full-page miniature prefacing the psalter text in the St. Albans Psalter, made in the 1120s for Christina of Markyate, probably commissioned by Abbot Geoffrey of St. Albans (English Romanesque)
509. Alexis Master, The Deposition, illumination on parchment, full-page miniature prefacing the psalter text in the St. Albans Psalter (English Romanesque)
510. Alexis Master, Mary Magdalen as Apostle to the Apostles, illumination on parchment, full-page miniature prefacing the psalter text in the St. Albans Psalter (English Romanesque)
511. Self-Portrait of Hildegard of Bingen, with the Monk Volmar, from the Scivias, early 20th-century copy of a lost manuscript made ca. 1165; the illustrations were probably designed by Hildegard herself (German Romanesque)
512. The Cosmic Egg, from the Scivias, early 20th-century copy of a lost manuscript made ca. 1165 (German Romanesque)
513. The Fall of Man, from the Scivias, early 20th-century copy of a lost manuscript made ca. 1165 (German Romanesque)
514. The Giving of Life, from the Scivias, early 20th-century copy of a lost manuscript made ca. 1165 (German Romanesque)
515. The Trinity and the Macrocosm/ Man as Microcosm, from the Liber Divinorum Operum, early 13th-century copy of a lost manuscript made ca. 1170 (German Romanesque)
516. The Vision of Divine Love, from the Liber Divinorum Operum, early 13th-century copy of a lost manuscript made ca. 1170 (German Romanesque)
names/terms

mysticism
anchoress/recluse
Christina of Markyate (late 11th century – ca. 1160)
Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)
Scivias (written ca. 1151; “Know the Ways of the Lord”)
Liber Divinorum Operum (written ca. 1163; “The Book of Divine Works”)

 

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