Josh Fattal was one of three Americans detained by Iranian troops on July 31, 2009. He was hiking in Iraqi Kurdistan with friends Shane Bauer and Sarah Shourd when a border guard accused them of illegal entry into Iran. The three were later imprisoned and charged with spying. Fattal spent 781 days in an Iranian prison, 100 of those in solitary confinement. He was released on September 21, 2011. Josh Fattal is now a PhD candidate in NYU's history department, studying jurisdictional tensions, or how various forms of government (local, state, national) respond to similar issues. He lives in South Brooklyn with his partner, Jenny Borhman, and their son, Isaiah Azad Fattal. Azad means "freedom" in Farsi. Fattal, with Bauer and Shourd, is a co-author of the 2014 memoir A Sliver of Light: Three Americans Imprisoned in Iran.